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Already layed Stumbling Stones
Katharina Embden * 1877
Kurzer Kamp 6 Altenheim (Hamburg-Nord, Fuhlsbüttel)
gedemütigt / entrechtet
Flucht in den Tod
further stumbling stones in Kurzer Kamp 6 Altenheim:
Dr. Julius Adam, Johanna Hinda Appel, Sara Bromberger, Therese Bromberger, Friederike Davidsohn, Margarethe Davidsohn, Gertrud Embden, Katharina Falk, Auguste Friedburg, Jenny Friedemann, Mary Halberstadt, Käthe Heckscher, Emily Heckscher, Betty Hirsch, Hanna Hirsch, Regina Hirschfeld, Clara Horneburg, Anita Horneburg, Emma Israel, Jenny Koopmann, Franziska Koopmann, Martha Kurzynski, Laura Levy, Chaile Charlotte Lippstadt, Isidor Mendelsohn, Balbine Meyer, Helene Adele Meyer, Ida Meyer, Ella Rosa Nauen, Celine Reincke, Friederike Rothenburg, Benny Salomon, Elsa Salomon, Martha Rosa Schlesinger, Louis Stiefel, Sophie Stiefel, Louise Strelitz, Eugenie Hanna Zimmermann
Gertrud Embden, born 27.5.1876 in Hamburg, took her own life, died 15.7.1942 in Hamburg
Katharina Embden, born 6.12.1877 in Hamburg, took her own life, died 14.7.1942 in Hamburg
Kurzer Kamp 6, Old People's Home (Hamburg-North, Fuhlsbüttel), designated 1939 a "Judenstift"
The two sisters Gertrud and Katharina Embden came from long-established Jewish families in Hamburg. Their mother Elisabeth, née Dehn (born 7.6.1852 in Hamburg), daughter of Bernhard Adolph Dehn and Merle Marianne, née Goldschmidt, belonged to an established merchant family. She had already lost her father at the age of eleven. On June 25, 1863, Bernhard Adolph Dehn had died in Marienbad at the age of 55 and was buried in Hamburg at the Grindel Jewish Burial Ground.
The family on his father's side can be traced back to his great-grandfather, the merchant Lion von Embden. The father of the two sisters, Dr. George Heinrich Embden (born 22.9.1839 in Hamburg), was the son of Henriette, née Friedländer, and the coffee broker Barthold Embden; they had married in Hamburg on June 22, 1823. As early as 1808, the sisters' grandfather had co-founded the traditional coffee trading house Embden Drishhaus and Epping. He died in 1859 and was buried in the Ottensen Jewish Cemetery.
His brother Moritz Embden (1789-1866), the great uncle of Gertrud and Katharina Embden, was married to Charlotte Heine (1800-1899), the sister of the well-known poet Heinrich Heine.
The sisters' father, George Heinrich Embden, had become an "Advocat" (lawyer) after attending the scholarly school of the Johanneum, studying law in Heidelberg, Berlin and Göttingen and completing his dissertation in Hamburg, and had taken the Hamburg citizenship oath on 30 May 1862. As an entry in the Suppliken (petitions/applications) of the Senate Chancellery reveals, he seems to have been self-confident and not submissive: The Bürgergardist Dr. juris Heinrich Embden, after showing a lack of subordination to a lieutenant in the Hartmann beer pub near the Dammthor in June 1863, had to accept a military punishment for "insubordination" of 24 hours, increased to 40 hours of arrest.” (The Bürgergarde was a military unit in Hamburg 1814-1868). On 12 April 1870, George Heinrich Embden and Elisabeth, née Dehn, the sisters' parents, were married in the Geestlanden, today's Eppendorf.
Following a successful commercial case brought by George Heinrich Embden before a London court, he had been given the prestigious position of "consulent and first secretary" of the Chamber of Commerce since 26 April 1872. He had resigned from a brief mandate in the Hamburg Bürgerschaft because it was incompatible with his office in the Chamber of Commerce. He also became a lawyer and friend of the respected Hamburg merchant Edmund Siemers.
At Große Bleichen 42/44, where his law firm also had its offices, the eldest brother of the sisters, Heinrich Georg, was born on 19 March 1871 and the elder sister Marianne Elisabeth one and a half years later, on 25 October 1872. Their brother Gustav Georg was born at Alte Rabenstraße 8 in Pöseldorf on 10 November 1874. Gertrud Magdalene Elisabeth was born as the fourth child on 27 May 1876 in the morning at one o'clock in the new flat of her parents, Weidenallee 23. In the meantime, the family had converted to the Christian faith. One and a half years later, on 6 December 1877, the youngest of the five siblings, Katharina Elisabeth, was also born in Weidenallee.
That year in October, George Heinrich Embden resigned from the Chamber of Commerce at his own request, but remained there in an advisory capacity for a few more years. When Gertrud started school, her father worked in his law office at Große Bleichen 52 and the family lived at Hansastraße 8.
The grandmother, the widow Henriette Embden, remained living near her coffee shop until her death. On 10 December 1886, at the age of 76, she died in her flat at Brandsende 11. She was buried next to her husband in the Ottensen Jewish Cemetery.
In February 1892 the sisters' family moved to Oberstraße 95. The two brothers had attended the Wilhelm Grammar School and passed their school-leaving examinations there, Heinrich in 1889, Gustav in 1893. Both became doctors. Heinrich Embden studied in Alsace and in Freiburg im Breisgau, obtained his doctorate and his licence to practise medicine in 1893. After completing his military service, he became an assistant physician at the Eppendorf General Hospital and trained as a neurologist under Max Nonne* until 1897. Max Nonne remembers him in his "Lebenserinnerungen": "Dr. Embden was unusually intelligent, read a lot and retained everything, could talk brilliantly about everything and had an unusual gift for depicting things." As a specialist in neurology and nervous disorders, Heinrich Embden settled in Hamburg. He was appointed head physician of the department for nervous diseases and electrotherapy at the Israelite Hospital in 1898.
The sisters' great-aunt, Charlotte Embden, née Heine, died at the ripe old age of almost 99 on 14 October 1899. It is likely that the siblings Gertrud and Katharina Embden attended the funeral of the poet Heinrich Heine's sister with their family at the cemetery of the Hochdeutscher Israeliten-Gemeinde Altona in Ottensen.
The brother Heinrich George Embden married Gertrud Ida, née Küchler, in 1903. They had four children who grew up at Heilwigstraße 33, later no. 39: Mathilde (born 1904), Helmuth (born 1905), Gertrud Mathilde (born 1907) and Heinrich (born 1909).
The brother Gustav Embden had gone to Strasbourg and Zurich after his state examination and then took over the management of the laboratory in the municipal hospital in Frankfurt. He habilitated at the University of Bonn and became director of the chemical-physiological institute in Frankfurt in 1909. He was appointed professor of physiology at the newly founded Johann Wolfgang Goethe University in Frankfurt am Main. He married his assistant Hanni, née Fellner, the granddaughter of the senator and last "oldest mayor" of the Free City of Frankfurt, Carl Fellner. The latter had taken his own life because he did not want to become a traitor to his city when it was subjugated by Prussia in July 1866. Gustav and Hanni Embden had four children: Maria (born 1912), Dietrich (born 1914), Hildegard (born 1917) and Klara (born 1921).
Gertrud and Katharina Embden, like their sister Marianne Embden, had presumably attended a secondary school for girls and received an appropriate education. The eldest sister Marianne became a teacher and taught for a year from April 1905 at the prestigious private Töchterschule run by Antonie Milberg. Gertrud Embden had worked in welfare at various charities since 1899. In March 1903 she had worked as a teacher of home economics in Berlin and had been employed as a cookery teacher in practice and theory at the Anna-Heim, the "Dienstboten-Lehranstalt" in Alsterdorf, Lohkoppelweg. In October 1909, the headmistress, Bertha Wentzel, attested to her great organisational talent and empathetic handling of the pupils - "[...] knows excellently how to make work a pleasant duty for the young girls". Katharina Embden's educational background is not yet known. Presumably she was responsible for providing for the community household.
Her maternal grandmother, Marianne Dehn, née Goldschmidt (born 7.11. 1825 in Hamburg), a widow since the age of 37, had lived near her. She died on 23 July 1906 at the age of 80 in her flat at Rothenbaumchaussee 137, 1st floor. The sisters' uncle, their mother's brother, the lawyer Dr. Otto Dehn, also lived in the immediate vicinity with his wife and four sons in their own home at Rothenbaumchaussee 158.
The sisters' father died one year later, on 12 July 1907, at the age of 68, in his flat at Oberstraße 95. He had suffered from intestinal cancer. His son Heinrich Georg Embden, had been with him in his last hours. Two days later he was buried in the Ohlsdorf cemetery, grave location AC 23 IV, No. 54.
Three years later, on 27 June 1910, the mother Elisabeth Embden, née Dehn, died during a summer stay in Hahnenklee in the Harz mountains. She was 61 years old. After the transfer, she found her final resting place four days later next to her husband in the family grave with six grave spaces in the Ohlsdorf cemetery, grave location AC 23 IV, No. 53, today an empty grave space between rhododendron bushes.
After the death of their parents, the three unmarried sisters stayed together, initially living in their parents' flat, where they had spent 18 years together. Then, on 1 April 1911, they moved into a flat at Jungfrauenthal 12, 3rd floor. During this time Marianne Embden and her sisters took in the three-year-old Elisabeth Margarethe Anna Ottilie Vahl (born 11 April 1908 in Hiddensee) as their foster daughter. She came from a family with nine children who were in economic hardship. Elisabeth Vahl was raised as her own child in the sisters' shared apartment.
Gertrud Embden worked in the Hamburg Society for Charity, which became the newly founded Hamburg War Aid on 1 August 1914. She remained there until September 1919. Dr. O. Lohse, director of the public poor relief, found words of appreciation for her in a testimonial:
"She did an outstanding job in both places. In Hamburg War Relief she was the right hand of the Chief Executive. The entire structure of the war relief is largely her work. Hardly any question of an organisational nature was decided without successfully seeking her advice. In the handling of difficult individual cases and in the mediation of communication between the head office and the districts of war relief, her services were exemplary. Without exaggeration it can be said that after her resignation in September 1915 it was not possible to find a replacement, even to a certain extent, but rather that a quite noticeable gap remained. I have also been aware of Miss Embden's activities in the field of social welfare for many years. She has extensive knowledge, is thoroughly familiar with the circumstances and needs of impecunious circles, is inspired by a social spirit in the exercise of her work and has an unusual talent for practical action and correct decision-making".
Agnes Wolffson, Chairwoman of the War Kitchens, also attested to Gertrud Embden's valuable services as head of the Landungsbrücken War Kitchen for many years and hoped "that she will find an opportunity to utilise her great practical skills, organisational talent and inexhaustible labour in a responsible post where she can work for the benefit of her fellow men". Until 1920, Gertrud Embden always carried out her activities on a voluntary basis. Only after the loss of her fortune during the war and the inflationary period did she have to look for paid work in order to make a living. From February 1920 she worked as a salaried employee.
That the sisters' contact with their brother Gustav's family in Frankfurt had remained close can be inferred from the entry in the registration register, according to which their sister-in-law Johanna, née Fellner, and her children, four-year-old Hildegard, six-year-old Dietrich and nine-year-old Maria, visited them in their flat for five weeks in March and April 1921.
From the passport record of June 1926 on the occasion of a trip to Switzerland by the sisters Gertrud and Marianne Embden, we learn that Gertrud Embden, then 50 years old and a welfare worker by profession, was of medium height, had grey eyes and greying hair, whereas her older sister Marianne Embden, a head teacher by profession, was dark-haired.
In November 1927, Gertrud Embden's job as a welfare worker was changed into a civil servant position. One year later, on 24 December 1928, the wedding of her namesake niece, presumably her godchild, could be celebrated. Gertrud Mathilde Embden (born 17.7.1904 in Hamburg), the daughter of her brother Heinrich, also married a medical doctor, Dr. Hans Ernst Wassermeyer (born 30.12.1899 in Bonn, Rhine). A daughter was born of this union in 1931. However, the marriage was divorced in 1935, possibly as a result of the "Nuremberg Race Laws".
Marianne Embden had been a teacher at the Hansa Oberrealschule, later the Helene Lange Oberrealschule, since 1911. At this state girls' lyceum, it was possible to obtain the Abitur from 1912 onwards. It was the first state secondary school for girls in Hamburg to offer this qualification.
Marianne Embden was only 56 years old. She died on the night of 26 March 1929 of a heart defect with cerebral embolism. For years she had been receiving treatment from her brother Heinrich Embden, who had been head physician of the fourth medical department at the Barmbek General Hospital since August 1923. An obituary by her college and pupils describes her as follows: "She worked tirelessly for the welfare of the pupils and school for 18 years with her lively pedagogical interest, her pronounced social sense her superior spirit." In the family death notice in the "Hamburger Nachrichten" three days later, the name Elisabeth Vahl can also be read, but Katharina Embden's name is missing - perhaps it was forgotten by mistake. Two days later, the funeral service "in silence" and in the family circle took place in the Ohlsdorf crematorium. Her ashes were buried on 30 March 1929 near the family grave in the Ohlsdorf cemetery, grave location AC 22, No. 165.
She was honoured with a memorial service at the Helene Lange Upper Secondary School on Saturday, 6 April 1929 at 10.00 a.m., friends and former students were invited.
Gertrud and Katharina Embden moved from Jungfrauenthal to Braamkamp 42 on 22 April 1929, one month after the death of their sister Marianne. They had been assured a place to live for life when they moved into the two rooms on the 3rd floor in the housing complex of the "Senator Erich Soltow Foundation" for a monthly rent of RM 79.
Eleonore du Bois-Reymond lived in another room on the same floor. She had already lived with the sisters in the Jungfrauenthal and had moved with them. Eleonore du Bois-Reymond was 17 and 18 years younger than the sisters, a native of Berlin and a member of the Reformed denomination. She worked as a consular clerk. She probably came from the well-known Huguenot family in Berlin and was related to the renowned physiologist Emil du Bois-Reymond.
Shortly after the National Socialist takeover, the sisters' brother Gustav Embden was subjected to anti-Jewish persecution in Frankfurt. He was forced by students from his institute to walk through the city with a sign reading "I am a Jew". On 25 July 1933 he died in the nerve sanatorium in Nassau, according to the entry in his death certificate of "depression cholecystitis, embolism". He was 58 years old. Shortly before his death, he had earned great merits with his research into the glycose cycle. A granddaughter wrote: "Gustav Embden, their father (my grandfather) was also a victim of the Nazis. He was prevented from returning to his lifes work, he could no longer go to his laboratory. As a result he went into a deep depression for which he was hospitilized. During that time he died. He would have received the Noble prize for biochemistry that year." The "Gustav Embden Centre for Biological Chemistry" at the University of Frankfurt is named after him. His student E. Lehnhatz wrote an obituary for him: "Gustav Embden was - we who are left behind recognise this more and more from hour to hour - a unique man, an outstanding man. His way of doing his research, of experiencing and teaching physiology, the rigorous criticism of himself, the reliability of his work and the dedication to the work as an inner commitment, all this he left us, his students and his friends, as a legacy that should bear witness to him, as a piece in the best sense of German scientific tradition."
A Stolperstein commemorates him at his residence in Frankfurt am Main, Kennedyallee 99 (formerly Forsthausstraße).
Gertrud Embden was a retired civil servant. She had been "transferred" as an "inspector at the Youth Welfare Office" on 1 October 1933 and "retired" without a pension, although she had worked in Hamburg welfare for 22 years. Initially she worked as a volunteer, and only after her fortune was lost during the war and inflation did she accept a salaried position at the Hamburg Youth Welfare Office. She worked there for four years as an employee and nine years as a civil servant. She was one year short of the prescribed ten years as a civil servant for the payment of a pension. Therefore she had to rely on the help of her sister Katharina Embden, who had been able to find a job in the administration of the Erich Soltow Foundation and received 160 RM per month. In addition, her "foster daughter" Elisabeth Vahl was her only help. Elisabeth Vahl worked as a trained kindergarten teacher in the seminary kindergarten on Bundesstraße and earned 145 RM per month.
The brother Heinrich Embden was relieved of his post as head physician at the Barmbek General Hospital and dismissed on 31 December 1933 because of his Jewish origin.
Gertrud Embden was forced to submit an application for a "grace pension". Prof. Dr. Franz Nobiling from Charlottenburg (NSDAP member since 1 June 1929) supported her in this. In August 1933, he submitted a letter to State Councillor Schulz at the Senate in which he emphasised her merits in detail: "[...] she has the right to her request for a mercy pension due to her peace as well as war work for our German people". Furthermore, he sent his son, "Scharführer cand. theol." Friedrich Nobiling, for consultation with Senate Councillor Hey. The Nobiling family was related to the "Ziehtochter" Elisabeth Vahl.
The "grace pension" was granted via Senate Councillor Hey after discussion in the Senate from October 1933, initially for a period of one year. The "transitional allowance" of RM 80 per month was to be subject to the usual salary cuts. In August 1934, Gertrud Emden asked for the continued granting of this pension. It was granted to her with a deadline of 1 April 1935. In February 1935 she had to write another letter of request. The answer was: "The Senate resolves to grant the former Inspector at the Youth Welfare Office, Gertrud Embden, a revocable pension of RM 80 per month, subject to reduction, from 1 April 1935 until further notice."
Elisabeth Vahl, the "daughter of the family", moved out of their shared flat in Braamkamp in 1937.
Gertrud's brother Heinrich Embden's licence to practise medicine was revoked by the National Socialist state on 1 September 1938, as was the case for all Jewish doctors, except for a few so-called "medical practitioners" who were only allowed to treat Jews. He emigrated to Brazil with his wife and four children on 30 December 1938.
On 28 February 1939, Gertrud and Katharina Embden had to take the additional first name "Sara" as a compulsory name. According to the Reich Law of 17 February 1938, all Jewish women whose first names had not been officially classified as Jewish names were obliged to use this additional first name; for Jewish men it was "Israel".
The two sisters, who were baptised Lutheran, were assigned to the "Reich Association of Jews in Germany" as Jews from 31 July 1940 according to the National Socialist race laws, i.e. they had to become compulsory members of the Jewish Religious Association in Hamburg. On 28 April 1942 they were assigned to the "Judenhaus", the Mendelson-Israel-Stift, flat no. 10, the former flat of Emily and Käthe Heckscher. They came from the Braamkamp together with their former neighbours Emilie Ascher, Auguste Friedburg, Hanna Hirsch and Ella Rosa Nauen. The Embden sisters were related to Ella Nauen (their maternal grandmother Marianne Dehn, née Goldschmidt, was the sister of Ella Nauen's father Martin Goldschmidt).
The eldest brother of the two sisters, Heinrich Embden, died in emigration in Sao Paulo, Brazil, on 3 April 1941 at the age of 70. Her nephew Dietrich Embden, the son of her late brother Gustav, also died that year on 14 August 1941. He had gone to war for Germany as a soldier on the Eastern Front.
Gertrud and Katharina Embden were now completely on their own. After his death and the order for their deportation to Theresienstadt, the sisters must have felt great hopelessness and inner distress. Together they took their own lives.
On the morning of 14 July 1942, Mr. Kloth, the administrator of the Mendelson Israel Foundation, found Gertrud and Katharina Embden lying unconscious in their beds. He notified the police station 11. Oberwachtmeister Grabow and Hauptwachtmeister Schmidt of the Schutzpolizei 3830 came and found four cases of sleeping pills Progymongynon. As there were still signs of life, the sisters were taken by ambulance to the Israelite Hospital at Johnsallee 68 at around 12 noon. Katharina Embden died the same day at 8pm. One day later, Gertrud Embden succumbed to sleeping pill poisoning; she was found dead at 6:30 pm. On enquiry at the Jewish Hospital, Criminal Secretary Kruse received the death notices from "Miss" Stillschweig. In the list of the State Criminal Police, "evacuation" is given as the motive. Dr. med. Wolffson issued the death certificates and handed them over together with the certificates to the funeral director Heinrich Sabban for cremation. The sisters found their final resting place in the Ohlsdorf cemetery, next to the grave of their sister Marianne, grave location AC 22, no. 164-167. Their graves are no longer preserved.
At 66 and 65, Gertrud and Katharina Embden were "decidedly healthy and strong", as Alice Kruse's eyewitness account says.
The sister's friend, Eleonore du Bois-Reymond, left Hamburg and moved to Babelsberg, Potsdam, to 122 Berliner Straße on 29 March 1943.
Elisabeth Vahl, the Embden sisters' "foster child", died in Horb am Neckar on 6 January 1999 at the age of 90. Descendants of her brother Heinrich Embden live in Brazil today. The widow of her brother Gustav, Hanni, née Fellner, emigrated to the USA after the end of the war in 1947 with her daughters Hildegard Ter Horst, née Embden, and Maria Jansen, née Embden.
Stand: August 2023
© Margot Löhr
Quellen: 1; 2; 4; 5; 8; StaH, 131-1 I Senatskanzlei I, Suppliken; StaH, 131-10I Senatskanzlei-Personalabteilung I, 1933 KF 27; StaH, 314-15 Oberfinanzpräsident, 23; StaH, 331-5 Polizeibehörde, Unnatürliche Sterbefälle, 3 Akten 1942/1152 Gertrud Emden, 3 Akten 1942/1154 Katharina Embden; StaH, 332-3 Zivilstandsaufsicht, Geburtsregister, A 107 Nr. 1957/1871 Heinrich Georg Embden, A 141 Nr. 7287/1872 Marianne Embden, A 288 Nr. E 322/1874 Gustav Embden; StaH, 332-3 Zivilstandsaufsicht, Heiratsregister, B 102, Nr. 84/1870 George Embden u. Elisabeth Dehn; StaH, 332-5 Standesämter, Geburtsregister, 8914 u. 1401/1876 Gertrud Embden, 8926 u. 3503/1877 Katharina Embden; StaH, 332-5 Standesämter, Heiratsregister, 8825 u. 552/1928 Gertrud Mathilde Embden u. Hans Ernst Wassermeyer; StaH, 332-5 Standesämter, Sterberegister, 200 u. 5166/1886 Henriette Embden, 451 u. 1763/1899 Charlotte Embden, 7985 u. 278/1906 Marianne Dehn, 7988 u. 328/1907 George Embden, 7997 u. 474/1909 Barthold Embden, 8097 u. 210/1929 Marianne Embden; StaH, 332-7 Staatsangehörigkeitsaufsicht, A I f Bd. 89 Nr. 792 Barthold Embden, A I f Bd.132, Nr. 733 Georg Heinrich Embden, B I a 1862, Nr. 733; StaH, 332-8 Meldewesen, A 24 Bd. 338 Nr. 11861, Nr. 11792; StaH, 351-11 Amt für Wiedergutmachung, 1860 Heinrich George Embden, 1862 Mathilde Münster; StaH, 352-5 Gesundheitsbehörde, Todesbescheinigungen, 1907 Sta 3 Nr. 328 George Embden, 1929 Sta 3 Nr. 210 Marianne Embden; StaH, 362-6/16 Antonie Milberg, 1 Bd. 1; StaH, 362-2/30 Wilhelm-Gymnasium, 675 Bd. 1, 675 Bd. 2; 377-6_I a 69 Angestellte der Kriegsküchen, Gertrud Embden; StaH, 522-1 Jüdische Gemeinden, Geburten 696 d Nr. 59/1851 Elisabeth Dehn, 696 e Nr. 101/1852 Otto Carl Isaac Dehn; StaH, 522-1 Jüdische Gemeinden, Trauungen 702a Nr. 17/1823 Moritz Embden u. Charlotte Heine; StaH, 522-1 Jüdische Gemeinden, Sterbefälle 725 k Nr. 131/1863 Bernhard Dehn, 725 l Nr. 48/1866 Moritz Embden, 727 i Nr. 52/1859 Barthold Embden; StaH, 741-4 Fotoarchiv, K 6042, K 2350, S 4537; StaH, Hamburger Börsenfirmen, A 909/0022 Nr. 11, 1910/11, Nr. 12, 1912/13; StaH, A 576/0001, Verzeichnis der Hamburger Volksschullehrer und -Lehrerinnen des Stadt- und Landgebiets sowie der Lehrer an den Vorschulen der höheren Staatsschulen hrsg. von der Gesellschaft der Freunde des Vaterländischen Schul- und Erziehungswesens und vom Verein der Hamburger Landschullehrer, Hamburg Jahrgänge 1896–1915; 1918/19; StaH, A 576/0001, Hamburgisches Lehrerverzeichnis, hrsg. von der Gesellschaft der Freunde des Vaterländischen Schul- und Erziehungswesens, Hamburg Jahrgänge 1920–1933; Hamburger Adressbücher 1870–1942; Auskünfte Standesamt Horb am Neckar, Sterberegister, 1999/Nr. 7; Auskünfte Standesamt Kloster, Geburtsregister, 1908/Nr. 7; Auskünfte Standesamt Nassau, Martin Steinhäuser, Sterberegister, Nr. 47/1933; Auskünfte Petra Schmolinske und Barbara Schulze, Förderkreis Ohlsdorfer Friedhof e. V., Grablage AC 22, Nr. 164–167; AC 23, Nr. 53–58; Archiv Friedhof Ohlsdorf, Beerdigungsregister, Nr. 7509/1907, Nr. 6875/1910, Nr.1122/1929, Grabbrief 43286/1907; Renate Hauschild-Thiessen: Agnes Wolffson (1849–1936), in: Hamburgische Geschichts- und Heimatblätter 10 (1981), Nr. 9, Hamburg 1980, S. 201–218; Franklin Kopitsch/Dirk Brietzke (Hrsg.): Hamburgische Biografie. Personenlexikon, Bd. 2, Göttingen 2003; Max Nonne: Anfang und Ziel meines Lebens. Erinnerungen, 2., verb. Aufl., Hamburg 1972, S. 118 f.; Dirk Pette, Festansprache zum 125jährigen Jubiläum des Wilhelm-Gymnasiums, 28. April 2006; Christine Pieper: Die Sozialstruktur der Chefärzte des Allgemeinen Krankenhauses Hamburg-Barmbek, Hamburg/Münster 2003; Jürgen Sielemann: Quellen zur jüdischen Familienforschung, in: Maajan (2003), Nr. 67, S. 2186; Rita Bake: Selly Agnes Wolffson, in: http://www.hamburg.de/clp/frauenbiografien-suche/clp1/hamburgde/onepage.php?BIOID=3100&qN=Wolffson, eingesehen am: 18.2.2022; Dehn family tree, http://www.loebtree.com/dehn.html, eingesehen am: 18.2.2022; Stolperstein-Biographien in Sachsenhausen: Embden, Gustav, https://frankfurt.de/frankfurt-entdecken-und-erleben/stadtportrait/stadtgeschichte/stolpersteine/stolperstene-in-sachsenhausen/familien/embden-gustav, eingesehen am: 28.3.2022; Alice Kruse, unveröffentl. Manuskript, und Photos der Familie Nauen/Goldschmidt, im Juni 2008 freundlicherweise bereitgestellt von Dr. Carl-Ludwig Kruse (verst. 2016). Herzlichen Dank an Ingrid Jansen und Hilary Holt!
*Zu Max Nonne, in der NS-Zeit "Euthanasie"-Befürworter siehe https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Max_Nonne?msclkid=6e86e861cde311eca9c58500735ab26b#Diskussion_um_den_Stra%C3%9Fennamen_in_Hamburg-Langenhorn (eingesehen 7.5.2022)
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