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Albert Gradenwitz * 1897
Rutschbahn 31 (Eimsbüttel, Rotherbaum)
AUF TRANSPORT NACH
Bertha Vera Gradenwitz, née Zolinski, born 8.7.1906 in Hamburg, admitted to the Langenhorn Sanatorium and Nursing Home on 7.11.1940, transferred to the Jacoby'sche Sanatorium and Nursing Home in Bendorf-Sayn near Koblenz on 21.4.1941, deported to Izbica on 22.3.1942
Albert Gradenwitz, born 8.1.1897 in Prausnitz/ Trebnitz near Posen (today: Prusice, Dolnoslaskie, Poland), deported to Minsk on 8.11.1941, further deported via several concentration camps to Sachsenhausen concentration camp on 12.10.1944 (Stolperstein planned)
Rutschbahn 31 (Eimsbüttel, Rotherbaum)
Bertha Vera Zolinski and Albert Gradenwitz were both descendants of Jewish parents. They had married in Hamburg on February 3, 1927, and their daughter Margot was born on July 16, 1928. A few months after the stillbirth of a boy on April 16, 1929, the marriage was divorced on January 23, 1930. Both spouses were murdered by the National Socialists. Their daughter Margot left Germany in time in May 1939 with a Kindertransport to England.
Bertha Vera Zolinski (married Gradenwitz) was born in Hamburg on July 8, 1906. She was the daughter of Joseph Zolinski, a teacher with a doctorate, born on June 26, 1870 in Jaraszewo (then the district of Jarotschin, from 1887 the administrative district of Posen, today the voivodeship of Greater Poland), and his wife Hertha, née David, born on Dec. 7, 1880 in Hamburg. One year before Bertha Vera's birth, the Zolinski couple had already had a child, who died the day after his birth and was buried in the Jewish Cemetery in Ohlsdorf (Grablage A10 Nr. 401).
Bertha Vera's parents had married in Hamburg on August 2, 1904. The family, which in addition to Bertha Vera included the daughters Ada Lotte Vita, born on September 16, 1907, Hanna Erna, born on November 21, 1910, and the son Herbert, born on January 18, 1921, lived in the Grindelviertel in the Rotherbaum district, at Roonstraße 38 in the Hoheluft-West district and finally at Loogestieg 6 in Eppendorf. Joseph and Hertha Zolinski were each listed separately in the Hamburg address book for several years, Joseph as a "scientific teacher" and Hertha with the addition of "novelty sales." It is likely that both spouses were active in their own right professionally.
Joseph Zolinski's job title in the address book refers to his private teaching institution, which he had been running since around 1903, to prepare young people for the "One-Year Voluntary Examination". He gave private tutoring to high school students. In addition, he offered "special civil service courses, private lessons, and correspondence classes in all languages and sciences." For years, the Hamburg high school authorities observed Joseph Zolinski's activities with skepticism. It suspected him of issuing "brilliant certificates" to his students that were not justified. It was not until September 1918 that a committee, the "Second Section" of the Oberschulbehörde, came to the conclusion that there were no criminal acts, but school leavers had not been prepared for exams. Possibly as a result of this conflict with the Hamburg school authorities, Joseph Zolinski had to close his "Unterrichts-Institut Rex". He was now unemployed. Due to the resulting economic problems, the Zolinski couple had to rely on additional income and sublet a room.
In October 1923 Joseph Zolinski, accompanied by his daughter Ada Lotte Vita, who was always called Charlotte or Lotte, emigrated to the USA. Perhaps he hoped for better professional opportunities in America than in Hamburg. On the passenger list of the steamer "Jeanette Kayser" he was listed as "Rabbi". After father and daughter disembarked in New Orleans, they settled in Baltimore, Maryland. Joseph Zolinski found employment as a cataloger and classifier in the Orient Department of the Johns Hopkins Library and acquired American citizenship in 1929. He now went by the name Zolin.
Charlotte Zolinski, who was listed as a seamstress on immigration records, also applied for U.S. citizenship in 1928 but did not receive it until 1941, when she was again presented for it. She visited her Hamburg family members again in 1928. After a marriage in New York in 1931, which she later divorced, to Reinhart Schönberger, a native of Nuremberg born in 1902, she married a second time. Her name was now Charlotte Foster Zolin and she had two children. (She died of old age on July 12, 2015 in Venice, Florida. That is where she had last resided).
Hertha Zolinski remained in Hamburg, living with her daughter Bertha Vera and son Herbert in the apartment at Loogestieg 6. We do not know whether daughter Hanna Erna also lived here.
Albert Gradenwitz had found his first Hamburg accommodation in 1919 with the Zolinski family at Loogestieg 6, where he met Bertha Vera, his future wife. Gradenwitz, who was born on February 3, 1897, was a commercial assistant and traveler for a printing company and came from Prausnitz (today Prusice, Dolnoslaskie, Poland), a town near Posen. He may have followed his older brother Ismar, who had been living in Hamburg since 1918, to the Hanseatic city.
The sublease at Loogestieg 6 ended in 1926 when Albert Gradenwitz could no longer afford the rent for the room due to prolonged unemployment. Albert Gradenwitz's father Raphael Gradenwitz, who had immigrated to Hamburg in 1922, was also unable to support him, as he explained to the welfare office. Albert was, however, allowed to sleep on the sofa in his father's and stepmother's apartment at Koopstraße 1 in Eimsbüttel, in a room occupied by his brother Bruno and half-brother Siegfried.
Raphael Gradenwitz, son of a cantor, had also been born in Prausnitz in 1865. On November 13, 1894, he had married Martha Pietrkowski, born on December 22, 1868, in Ostrowo in the province of Posen (today Ostrow Wielkopolski, Poland), and with her, in addition to Albert, he had five other children, all of whom were born in Posen: Ismar Fred Gradenwitz, born Sept. 22, 1895, Rosa Gradenwitz, born Aug. 28, 1898, Moritz Gradenwitz, born Jan. 19, 1900, Klara (Clara) Gradenwitz, born Sept. 9, 1902, and Bruno Gradenwitz, born Sept. 17, 1904.
After Martha Gradenwitz had died in Posen in 1910, Raphael Gradenwitz had married Eva Meleh Wolffs, born in Aurich/ Ostfriesland on Oct. 17, 1874 to a Jewish family, in second marriage on May 3, 1912 in Berlin. This couple had two children, Siegfried, born in Posen on Jan. 9, 1913, and a boy born on March 6, 1914, who died already on March 11, 1914. The family continued to live in Posen.
After the Treaty of Versailles came into force on January 10, 1920, and the associated Minority Protection Treaty, Germans who had lived in the territory ceded to Poland between 1908 and 1920 could choose (opt) for Polish or German citizenship. There was a dispute between Germany and Poland as to whether those who retained German citizenship had to leave the now Polish territory. The dispute ended with the German-Polish Vienna Convention of August 30, 1923: According to this convention, Germans who had left Poland prior to "a settlement under international law" had thereby also opted for Germany. The convention further provided that the Polish authorities had the right to demand that they leave the area.
Bruno Gradenwitz later reported that his parents had given the option for Germany for themselves and their family members before the German Consulate General in Posen in 1922. This had been a matter of course for them. Although his father, who was already 58 years old, was forced to give up his livelihood, there was no hesitation for his parents, because the family felt German by birth, language, education and culture. Raphael Gradenwitz, moreover, had served as a soldier during the First World War.
His sons Ismar, Albert and Bruno had already settled in Hamburg between 1918 and 1920. So it was obvious that Raphael Gradenwitz with his wife and son Siegfried also turned there after the option for German citizenship. From 1923 Raphael Gradenwitz belonged to the Jewish community in the Hanseatic city.
The couple Raphael and Eva Gradenwitz found basement accommodation at Koopstraße 1 as tenants with the widow J. Koop, who ran an egg business there. They then lived at Bieberstraße 7 and at Bogenstraße 11, each as subtenants, and finally, from 1935, at Grindelallee 47 in an apartment of their own. Raphael Gradenwitz described himself as an "office clerk"; in the Hamburg address book he was listed as an "accountant". However, the now 69-year-old no longer found employment in Hamburg.
Albert Gradenwitz and Bertha Vera Zolinski were married - as mentioned above - on February 3, 1927, at which time Bertha Vera was pregnant. The boy, born on May 15, 1927, in the Israelite Hospital, died after only 40 minutes. He was buried in the Jewish Cemetery in Ohlsdorf (grave location M 1 12). Another child, who is listed in the burial register of the Ohlsdorf Jewish Cemetery, also died one day after his birth on April 17, 1929 (Grablage M1 12c).
Even before his marriage to Bertha Vera Zolinski, Albert Gradenwitz had often joined meals at the household of his future mother-in-law. After the marriage he lived there again.
Bertha Vera and Albert Gradenwitz's daughter Margot was born on July 16, 1928. Her parents handed her over as an infant to the orphanage for Jewish girls (Paulinenstift), Laufgraben 37, on April 17, 1929. Albert Gradenwitz had obtained Margot's admission by making a trumped-up claim that the head welfare officer had ordered Margot's orphanage admission.
The young couple lived largely on welfare support. In response to an inquiry from the welfare office in 1929, Hertha Zolinski said that she could not help because she herself had fallen into great need as a result of her husband's earlier unemployment, now living in the United States.
On May 16, 1930, Hertha Zolinski followed her husband to the U.S. together with their son Herbert, now nine years old. Mother and son reached New York on May 24 aboard the S.S. "Albert Ballin" and traveled to Baltimore. Hertha Zolinski successfully applied for naturalization in 1937. Already in August 1929, her daughter Hanna Erna Zolinski, who had previously worked as a domestic help, had emigrated to the USA. She too lived first in Baltimore, later in Williamsport/ Pensylvania. It is not clear from the accessible documents whether attempts were made to enable Bertha Vera's emigration as well.
A few days after Hertha Zolinski's emigration, the marriage between Albert and Bertha Vera Gradenwitz was divorced on March 24, 1930. They could now no longer afford the rent for the apartment at Loogestieg 6 and found lodging in furnished rooms, which they each occupied for themselves.
For Bertha Vera Gradenwitz, addresses are known at Grindelallee 50 with Nowigk, at Rappstraße 15 with Kramer, at Heinrich-Barth-Straße No. 3 with Mularski and No. 8 with Willy Wolff, at Holsteinischer Kamp 18 with Schnell and at Rutschbahn 31.
After his divorce, Albert Gradenwitz initially found lodgings in apartments at 40, 31 and 38 Alter Teichweg in Barmbek, then at 31 Alter Steinweg, at 31 Rappstraße and No. 24 with Davids, at 4 Grindelberg with Apper, at 4 Grindelstieg with Ascher, and finally lived with his former wife at 31 Rutschbahn.
The search for work turned out to be difficult for both of them: Albert Gradenwitz turned down a job as a traveling salesman for rubber heels because this activity seemed "too marginal" to him. Bertha Vera Gradenwitz was temporarily employed in the sewing room of the Jewish community and briefly as a cleaning lady. She also quickly gave up jobs again, among other things because the way there seemed too long to her.
Bertha Vera Gradenwitz must have shown signs of mental illness even before her marriage in 1927. She had already been admitted to the former Friedrichsberg State Hospital around 1924. A patient index card there shows five admissions up to 1939. We do not know the details, because her patient file from Friedrichsberg is not available.
For a long time, the Friedrichsberg institution was Hamburg's central admission facility for people with psychological or mental illnesses. They could be assigned to other institutions from there. In many cases, they were transferred to the Langenhorn State Hospital following their stay at Friedrichsberg.
Presumably, Bertha Vera Gradenwitz also became a patient of the Langenhorn State Hospital in 1935 through transfer for several months until she was released home on June 12, 1935. Bertha Vera and Albert Gradenwitz again lived in different apartments, but are said to have gotten along well during this time and also visited each other.
In 1938, Bertha Vera Gradenwitz sought to leave National Socialist Germany together with her daughter Margot. Ten-year-old Margot Gradenwitz continued to live in the girls' orphanage at Laufgraben 37 and attended the Jeiwsh Girl’s school at Carolinenstraße 35, but Bertha Vera Gradenwitz's plan to emigrate to the USA with her daughter failed.
Margot was able to escape to England on a Kindertransport in May 1939. After saying goodbye to her parents, she never saw them again. In England, she lived in a foster home in Colwyn Bay in northern Wales and attended first an elementary school and then the secondary Pendorlan School until her foster parents, Mr. and Mrs. Morris Englemann, could no longer finance her school attendance. Until 1940, Margot later reported, there had been correspondence with her parents - also mediated by her grandmother Hertha Zolinski in the USA - which broke off completely in 1941 after the USA entered the war. (After finishing school, Margot worked as a clerk in Colwyn Bay and in 1946 in Birmingham. In April 1947, she embarked in Southampton on the steamer "Batory" to travel to Baltimore via New York to visit her grandmother. In 1967, she entered into a marriage with an optician whose name we know from a "Page of Testimony" written in 1981 by the Yad Vashem memorial. Margot Gradenwitz now bore the surname Graden Brilliant).
Only after the war did Margot Gradenwitz learn of the fate of her parents: After Bertha Vera Gradenwitz's release from the Langenhorn State Hospital in 1935, she seems to have lived independently until her former husband again admitted her to the now renamed "Heil- und Pflegeanstalt Langenhorn" on November 7, 1940. The admission diagnosis was "periodic catatonia (schizophrenia)". It was noted in her medical record that the patient was extraordinarily agitated during the admission examination. And further, "She laughs, cries, and screams in confusion. She gives incoherent answers to questions." Further notes about her stay in Langenhorn are missing.
Bertha Vera Gradenwitz was one of very few Jewish patients who were still admitted to a state psychiatric hospital at that time. All Jewish patients from northern Germany had previously been rounded up at the Langenhorn Sanatorium and Nursing Home, transported away on September 23, 1940, and murdered with carbon monoxide on the same day at the Brandenburg at river Havel killing facility. For the period thereafter, a circular of the Reich and Prussian Ministries of the Interior of December 12, 1940, ordered "that mentally ill Jews may only be admitted to the sanatorium and nursing home in Bendorf-Sayn, district of Koblenz, which is maintained by the Reich Association of Jews. [...] If, for reasons of public safety, the placement of a mentally ill Jew in a German sanatorium and nursing home becomes necessary, the patient is to be transferred immediately to the Bendorf-Sayn sanatorium and nursing home."
This is what happened to Bertha Vera Gradenwitz: she was "discharged to Bendorf-Sayn" on April 21, 1941. She lived there for another eleven months until she was deported "to the East" on March 22, 1942, along with 336 people from the asylum and from the city and district of Koblenz. The Koblenz State Police Headquarters of the Gestapo noted on April 13, 1942, "that the Jews listed under file no. 1-337 on the basis of the 11th Ordinance to the Reich Citizenship Law of November 25, 1941 - RGBl. I p. 722 - emigrated on March 22, 1942 and thus lost their German citizenship. Gez. Schubert."
The destination of this deportation is not completely clear. However, it is assumed that these people were taken to the so-called transit ghetto Izbica for the temporary accommodation of foreign Jews and either perished there or were murdered in one of the extermination camps of "Aktion Reinhardt", probably Belzec or Sobibor. Thus, neither the place of death nor the exact date of death of Bertha Vera Gradenwitz are known.
We know little about the further life situation of Albert Gradenwitz. He had to perform "compulsory labor" as a welfare recipient in the 1930s. During the census in May 1939 he lived at Grindelstieg 4 with Ascher, latly at Sedanstraße 21 with Rosa, Hugo and Bela Feilmann. Here he received the deportation order. Like the Feilmann family, Albert Gradenwitz was "evacuated" to Minsk on November 8, 1941, as deportations were euphemistically described at the time (Stolpersteine commemorate the Feilmann family at Sedanstraße 21).
From there, Albert Gradenwitz was transferred to the Reichshof forced labor camp (Rzeszów, Carpathian Voivodeship in southeastern Poland), which was created in November 1942 from the previous ghetto, and in July 1944 to the Plaszow concentration camp on the southeastern outskirts of Krakow and its Wieliczka subcamp.
In this subcamp, according to witnesses, 465 Jews including Albert Gradenwitz were trained to assemble diesel engines for DB-605 Luftwaffe flying machines. On July 28, 1944, these prisoners had to leave the Wieliczka subcamp again. Albert Gradenwitz arrived at Flossenbürg concentration camp as an "assembler" on August 4, 1944 (prisoner number 14810), but was transferred to Natzweiler concentration camp in Alsace as early as August 21, 1944. There he was one of those prisoners who were to build Daimler-Benz aircraft engines in the Urbis-Wesserling subcamp.
On October 12, 1944 462 of the 465 prisoners were taken to Sachsenhausen concentration camp. They are said to have been deported from there to other camps. Confirmation that Albert Gradenwitz arrived in Sachsenhausen could not be found in the archives of the Sachsenhausen Memorial. There is no record of his stay there, nor is there any other sign of his life.
As with his divorced wife, Albert Gradenwitz's exact place and date of death are unknown.
Albert Gradenwitz's parents, Raphael and his stepmother Eva Meleh Gradenwitz had apparently decided to emigrate to England in 1939. After arriving there in June or July 1939, the penniless couple was maintained by their son Bruno, who had already emigrated to England in March 1939.
About Albert Gradenwitz's siblings we know the following:
Bruno Gradenwitz, who later called himself Bernard Charles Graydon, had been living as a foreign exchange and securities broker at a bank in Hamburg since October 1920. In December 1933, the board of the Hamburg Stock Exchange rejected his application for admission as a freelance broker, emphasizing that this was not for racial reasons, but because Bruno Gradenwitz had not yet been an independent broker before the cancellation of all broker licenses in June 1933 and their partial re-admission. He lived at Grindelallee 47 with his parents until he emigrated to England in March 1939. He wanted to establish a new existence in England by making marzipan figures. For this purpose, he took plaster stencils with him from Germany. Whether he was able to realize his intention, we do not know. After a short internment after the beginning of the war (as enemy alien), Bruno Gradenwitz served in the British Army from January 1940 to October 31, 1945. When he married in 1952, he lived in the Paddington district of London.
The other siblings had also already left Germany in 1939 or were striving to emigrate:
Siegfried Gradenwitz graduated from the Talmud Torah School in Hamburg at the age of 16 with the Obersekunda-Reife. He completed an apprenticeship as a merchant's assistant in a company that traded in and sampled tranes and oils. Siegfried Gradenwitz was dismissed in 1934 because of his Jewish origin. He left Germany on June 8, 1936. In England, he initially worked in the same industry, but lost his post after two years and was then unemployed. Siegfried Gradenwitz, who changed his name to Stephen Frank Graydon, lived in Edgware Middelsussex.
Ismar Gradenwitz, who later called himself Fred Graydon, had attended three years of middle school and six years of Wilhelm Gymnasium in Posen. He then completed a three-year apprenticeship in a men's clothing factory and subsequently worked in this industry in Poznan and Szczecin. In 1916 Ismar Gradenwitz was drafted into the Guards Field Artillery in Jüterbog in present-day Brandenburg. He was mustered out in Hamburg at Easter 1918 and settled in the Hanseatic city. On December 13, 1922, he married Frieda Hinsch, who was born in Glücksburg in 1894 and was also Jewish. The couple had children Ellen, born on April 23, 1926, and Alfred, born on August 2, 1929. Probably in 1920, Ismar Gradenwitz opened a stationery store engros at Kielortallee 3/5, which operated business premises at Gänsemarkt 13 from about 1924. Under the name of his wife Frieda, he ran the business from about 1932 in Colonnaden 80/82. After Ismar Gradenwitz's main customers were no longer allowed to buy from Jews in 1935, the business income was no longer sufficient to support the family. Ismar Gradenwitz now rented a large apartment at Beneckestraße 22 and tried to keep his head above water financially by renting out rooms. But older tenants died, others emigrated. With the help of a brother living in England, the family was able to flee there in 1939, first Ismar at the beginning of April and Frieda with the two children a month later. Frieda Gradenwitz moved to the USA in 1940, Ismar in 1943.
Rosa (Rose) Gradenwitz had worked as a teacher at the Jewish Girl’s School (Israelitische Töchterschule) at Carolinenstraße 35 since August 18, 1921. She was dismissed on March 1, 1939, when the girls' school lost its independence and the students and their teachers had to move to Grindelhof to the boy’s Talmud Torah School and neighboring buildings. Rosa Gradenwitz lived at 58 Schlump Street near Tradelius until her emigration. She left Germany on March 8, 1939. In England, the unmarried woman later called herself Rose Graydon. The passionate teacher now had to work in the household. At times she was unemployed. She acquired British citizenship and, like her brother Siegfried, lived in Edgware, Middlesussex.
Moritz Gradenwitz worked as a bank clerk in Berlin-Charlottenburg. The single man emigrated to the Netherlands and settled in Nijmegen on May 3, 1933. When the German Wehrmacht occupied the Netherlands in May 1940, he was again persecuted there as a Jew. On April 10, 1943, he was sent to the Herzogenbusch concentration camp (Dutch: Kamp Vught), on May 23, 1943, to the "police transit camp for Jews Kamp Westerbork," and on May 25, 1943, he was deported with transport No. 65 from Westerbork to Sobibor, where he was murdered on May 28, 1943.
The sister Klara (Cläre) Gradenwitz, who also lived in Berlin-Charlottenburg, worked as a milliner. She emigrated to France. We do not know her further fate.
Translation by Beate Meyer
Stand: February 2022
© Ingo Wille
Quellen: 1; 4; 5; 8; 9; Adressbuch Hamburg (diverse Jahrgänge); StaH 213-13 Landgericht Hamburg – Wiedergutmachung 21675 Fred Graydon/ Ismar Gradenwitz, 34471 Margot Graden/ Gradenwitz, 35115 Fred Graydon/ Ismar Gradenwitz, 3658 Rosa Rose Graydon/ Gradenwitz; 314-15 Oberfinanzpräsident (Devisenstelle und Vermögensverwertungsstelle) FVg 3658 Rosa Gradenwitz, FVg 3678 Bruno Gradenwitz, FVg 3681 Rosa Gradenwitz, FVg 4030 Ismar (Fred) und Frieda Gradenwitz, FVg 4707 Raphael und Eva Gradenwitz, FVg 5869 Vera und Margot Gradenwitz; 332-5 Standesämter 1982 Geburtsregister Nr. 4481/1880 Hertha David, 113946 Geburtsregister Nr. 706/1910 Hanna Erna Zolinski, 14674 Geburtsregister Nr. 361/1906 Bertha Zolinski, 14860 Geburtsregister Nr. 470/1907 Ada Lotte Vita Zolinski, 8632 Heiratsregister Nr. 478/1904 Joseph Zolinski/ Hertha David, 9612 Heiratsregister Nr. 49/1927 Albert Gradenwitz/ Bertha Eva Zolinksi, 7982 Sterberegister Nr. 312/1905 NN. Gradenwitz; 351-11 Amt für Wiedergutmachung 17680 Ismar Gradenwitz, 20467 Rose Graydon/ Gradenwitz, 28882 Bruno Gradenwitz, 38901 Stephen Frank Graydon/ Siegfried Gradenwitz, 38901 Stephen Frank/ Siegfried Gradenwitz; 48845 Margot Gradenwitz/ Brilliant, 48846 Margot Gradenwitz/ Brilliant; 352-8/7 Staatskrankenanstalt Langenhorn Abl. 1995/1 Nr. 21304 Vera Gradenwitz; 361-2 V Oberschulbehörde V 712 b 18 Einjährigeninstitut von Dr. Joseph Zolinski (Unterrichtsinstitut Rex) und wissenschaftliches Lehrinstitut Dr. Carl Theodor Hoefft; Stadtarchiv Berlin, Heiratsregister Nr. 404/1912 Raphael Gradenwitz/ Eva Meleh Wollfs; KZ-Gedenkstätte Flossenbürg, Häftlingskarteikarte Albert Gradenwitz, Archivdatenblatt Albert Gradenwitz; KZ-Gedenkstätte Sachsenhausen, Negativmitteilung zu Albert Gradenwitz vom 25.8.2021; Jüdischer Friedhof Ohlsdorf, Friedhofsdatenbank, Grabstelle A 10 Nr. 401 A, NN. Zolinksi, 8.7.1905; Joods Monument, Moritz Gradenwitz; https://www.oorlogslevens.nl/tijdlijn/Moritz-Gradenwitz/02/53043?lang=en, Zugriff 26.8.21; Yad Vashem, Moritz Gradenwitz; Ursula Randt, Carolinenstraße 35, Hamburg 1984, S. 79 ff.; Steffen Hänschen, Das Transitghetto Izbica im System des Holocaust, Berlin 2018, S. 138; Marian Wojciechowski, Die deutsche Minderheit in Polen (1920-1939), in: Deutsche und Polen zwischen den Kriegen. Minderheitenstatus und "Volkstumskampf" im Grenzgebiet (1920-1939). Texte und Materialien zur Zeitgeschichte, Bd. 9/1. hrsg. von Rudolf Jaworski und Marian Wojciechowski, München u.a. 1997, S. 6 ff.; Martin Weimann, Das nationalsozialistische Lagersystem, Frankfurt/M. 1990, S. 175, 346, 679; Ancestry.de Einbürgerungsregister der USA 1840-1957 hier: Joseph Zolinski (Joseph Zolin), Lotte Zolinski, (Zugriff 21.8.2021); Ancestry.de Hamburger Passagierlisten 1850-1934, 373-7 I, VIII A 1 Band 379, Hertha Zolinski, (Zugriff 21.8.2021); Ancestry.de Föderales Einbürgerungsregister Maryland, USA, 1795-1931, Petitionsnummer 15465, Hertha Zolin, (Hertha Zolinski), (Zugriff 21.8.2021); Ancestry.de Föderales Einbürgerungsregister Maryland, USA, 1795-1931, Deklarationsnummer 30396, Charlotte Zolinksi (Charlotte Zolin), (Zugriff 21.8.2021); Ancestry.de Hamburger Passagierlisten 1850-1934, 373-7 I, VIII A 1 Band 352, Charlotte Zolinski, (Zugriff 21.8.2021); Ancestry.de Hamburger Passagierlisten 1850-1934, 373-7 I, VIII A 1 Band 370, Erna Zolinski, (Zugriff 21.8.2021); Ancestry.de Sammlung Passagierlisten 1813-1963, Joseph Zolinski, Ankunft USA 15.10.1923, (Zugriff 21.8.2021); Ancestry.de Einbürgerungsregister der USA, 1840-1957, Joseph Zolinski, (Zugriff 21.8.2021); Männerlager Szebnie, http://www.tenhumbergreinhard.de/1933-1945-lager-1/1933-1945-lager-s/szebnie-maennerlager.html; Zwangsarbeitslager Reichshof (Rzeszów, https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rzeszów#Zeit_des_Zweiten_Weltkrieges_und_Holocaust; https://www.deutsche-digitale-bibliothek.de/item/O6X63QAA6DTCY5RKNQN5EZN2NGJICN3C; http://urbes-alsace.fr/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/P7e.Das-Kommando-A-10-in-Zusammenhang-mit-dem-Aussenlager-Urbis-Wesserling-1944.pdf; https://docplayer.org/63902463-Auvenlager-wesserling-urbis-liste-der-465-juedischen-haeftlinge-auch-daimler-benz-juden-oder-produktionshaeftlinge-genannt.html.