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Eugen Philipp Bauer * 1862
Wrangelstraße 8 (Eimsbüttel, Hoheluft-West)
Eugen Philipp Bauer, born 16.7.1862, deported to Theresienstadt Ghetto on 15.7.1942, perished there on 4.7.1943
Wrangelstraße 8, Eimsbüttel
Eugen Philipp Bauer was born in Hamburg on July 16, 1862, the oldest of seven children of the Jewish couple Philipp Louis Bauer and his wife Clara/Chaje Bauer, née Ollendorff. He was followed by Olga (born 26.12.1864), Conrad Philipp (born 12.2.1871), Sara Gertrud (born 30.5.1872), Helene Elsa (born 9.5.1875), Paul Ludwig (born 29.11.1877) and Rudolf (born 11.3.1880), all siblings were born in Hamburg.
The family lived for a few years at An der Alster 46 in the Hamburg-St. Georg district. In 1883, they moved into their own house at Hochallee 23 in upscale Havestehude. In 1891, however, they became tenants again, first at Hallerstraße 8 and finally the following year at Frauenthal 7.
We know nothing about Eugen Philipp Bauer's childhood. He later received commercial training and became active in his father's company, for which he also received procuration.
His father Philipp Bauer was a merchant and ran a dye and chemicals business under the company name "Gebrüder Bauer & Co.” that specialized in the import of "indigo of all varieties" (indigo = a shade of blue from the indigo plant for dyeing textiles).
The company, located at the Hamburg Stock Exchange, at pier 13, had already been founded by Eugen Philipp's grandfather Louis Moses Bauer (died 3.11.1873) and his brother Moritz M. Bauer (died 21.9.1861), as "Farbwaaren und Baumwollgarn-Spinnerei" at Am Mönkedamm 17. Since 1844, the company's headquarters were located at Catharinenstrasse 22 (today Katharinenstraße) in its own house, near the harbor opposite the Speicherstadt.
On October 1, 1890, Eugen Philipp Bauer registered an "indigo and dyed goods business" as the owner under the company name Eugen Bauer, also at the address Catharinenstraße 22. On January 2, 1892, however, he gave up the business and returned to his father's company.
Philipp Bauer died two years later, on June 11, 1894, after a serious illness. After his father's death, Eugen Philipp Bauer continued to run the company together with his mother until 1899. (The property at Catharinenstraße 22 had been taken over by the merchant Henry Loebel in 1893).
The family had already been living at Hochallee 92 since 1897. After the business closed, Clara Bauer moved to Hagedornstraße 29, where she remained until her death on October 10, 1907 (her urn was buried on her husband's grave in the Jewish Cemetery in Ohlsdorf).
Egon Philipp Bauer had initially still moved with them to Hagedornstraße 29, but from 1901 he lived as a merchant in England in the county of Essex. When his sister Sara Gertrud Bauer married the merchant Berthold Theiner (born 4.1.1862, died 17.7.1919) on May 9, 1904, Eugen Philipp Bauer traveled from London as best man. He returned to Hamburg in 1910 at the latest.
Since December 12 of that year, he had been paying his own taxes as an independent member to the Hamburg Jewish Community. From 1912 to 1916 Eugen Philipp Bauer lived with his unmarried sister, the teacher Helene Elsa Bauer, at Curschmannstraße 8 in Eppendorf.
A deep family connection speaks from all biographies of the siblings Eugen Philipp Bauer, Helene Elsa Bauer and Sara Gertrud Theiner who remained in Hamburg (see www.stolpersteine-hamburg.de).
Eugen Philipp Bauer now worked as an insurance agent for, among others, Basler Lebensversicherung, Norddeutsche Versicherungs AG, Wilhelm Lazarus Assekuradeur, Gust. F. Hübener and Nordstern Lebensversicherung.
On August 18, 1917, he married the non-Jewish Else Lucie Marie Liebke, née Staerker (born 23.2.1884). The couple had already lived together at Grindelberg 77 since May 21, 1917.
Else Liebke had been married in her first marriage to the late August Wilhelm Theodor Gustav Liebke. She brought her daughter Anna Elisabeth Marie Bertha Liebke with her into the second marriage (born in Hamburg 10.7.1902).
Else Liebke had a second child (born 15.6.1905) also named Else. Two days after the wedding on August 20, 1917, Eugen Philipp Bauer recognized Else as his daughter. Thus she received the family name Bauer. According to another marginal note on the birth certificate, he adopted her ten years later on October 4, 1927, presumably to give her the legal status of a legitimate child as well.
In 1918 Eugen Philipp Bauer moved with his family to Brahmsallee 4/ Harvestehude. From 1920 to 1926 the family lived at Pelzerstraße 7/ Altstadt and then at Emilienstraße 36/ Eimsbüttel until 1934.
In the meantime, Eugen Philipp Bauer had fallen ill: he suffered from cataracts and was therefore hospitalized in the Eppendorf hospital in April 1933. The hospital costs were so high that the couple took an oath of disclosure on December 8, 1934. On March 8, 1935, a doctor diagnosed that - if he did not undergo surgery - he was threatened with blindness. The cataract was treated with electro regulation at Eppendorf University Hospital on April 5, 1935. Eugen Philipp Bauer was able to leave the hospital on February 22, 1936. He could not pay the costs.
The welfare authorities therefore wrote to his sister Helene Elsa Bauer and asked her to pay the hospital costs, but she had to refuse. She was already providing financial support for her brother Rudolf Bauer and his family, who lived in Leipzig. Finally, the Welfare Office took over the hospital costs.
In November 1935, Eugen Philipp Bauer's monthly income fluctuated between RM 20 and RM 40. Presumably, he was no longer able to work regularly because of his eye disease. The tax office waived his taxes in full for 1935 and in part for 1936.
The marriage of Eugen Philipp Bauer and Else Bauer was divorced on August 9, 1935.
After the separation from his wife, Eugen Philipp Bauer lived at Haynstraße 18/ Eppendorf as a subtenant with Ferdinand Steindler (born 5.2.1906) until the latter gave him notice in 1936. In February and March of 1936, he again had to be hospitalized at the Eppendorf University Hospital for cataracts.
On February 20, 1936, Eugen Philipp Bauer received an advance from Nordstern Versicherung (the insurance company, his former employer) in the amount of 50 RM, with which he wanted to settle debts. But the advance went directly to the hospital and was then confiscated by the welfare authorities. Eugen Philipp Bauer's objection was rejected. The insurance company confirmed to the Welfare Authority on March 6, 1936, that Eugen Philipp Bauer had never received a fixed salary, but that he had very much received commissions as an insurance broker and also advances for future contracts that had not yet been concluded. However, he was no longer earning a regular income because of his age, heart complaints and cataracts.
On December 16, 1936, the Welfare Office wrote to Eugen Philipp's adopted daughter Else Bauer and asked her to contribute to the hospital costs for her father. But she was already supporting her mother and could not pay for her father, so she refused.
While Eugen Philipp Bauer was in the hospital, his sisters Helene Elsa Bauer and Sara Gertrud Theiner tried to find new accommodation for him and found a room at Isestraße 69 on the first floor for subletting from Charlotte Heidemann (born 7.9.1890). (She fled to Buenos Aires on July 1, 1938, where she died on October 9, 1960).
His sisters regularly invited Eugen Philipp Bauer to dinner and supported him with urgently needed purchases, since his money was no longer enough to live on.
According to information from Nordstern Versicherung, the Welfare Authority threatened Eugen Philipp Bauer to cut back on the support payments, because they suspected him of fraud, although he had informed the authority about every payment, which was also documented in the file. Eugen Philipp Bauer asked the welfare authority to understand his plight, but the case officer was urged to take harsh action against Eugen Philipp Bauer by the examiner of the field service.
On November 30, 1936, Eugen Philipp Bauer was again admitted to the Eppendorf Hospital, again threatened with blindness. He was able to leave the hospital on December 21, 1936, but the eye problems, the difficulties with the welfare authorities as well as the divorce meant that his heart complaints intensified and he now had to seek frequent medical treatment for them.
On May 31, 1937, he was again hospitalized, from which he was released on July 28, 1937, after eye surgery. His eye disease necessitated further treatment at the Eppendorf University Hospital in April 1938.
From 1938 on, Eugen Philipp Bauer lived at Wrangelstraße 8/ Hoheluft West. His two sisters continued to support him financially on a regular basis. But despite this, he was now unable to pay the health insurance contribution and lost his insurance coverage. He was lucky: a doctor therefore treated him free of charge.
On June 28, 1938, he underwent another complicated operation on his eyes at the Eppendorf Hospital, where he was then discharged on July 30, 1938. With his discharge from the hospital, the welfare file of the Welfare Office ended.
He now tried to compensate for his financial hardship by subletting a room and rented a room to a sailor on November 21, 1939. But the rental income was not sufficient. Eugen Philipp Bauer gave up his lodgings and moved in with Ruth Körbchen at Lange Reihe 111/ St. Georg on May 24, 1940. She was deported to Lodz/ Litzmannstadt Ghetto on October 25, 1941 (for her biography see www.stolpersteine-hamburg.de). Now he had to move to the "Judenhaus" Sedanstraße 23/ Rotherbaum on October 30, 1941.
His two sisters Helene Elsa Bauer and Sara Gertrud Theiner took their own lives on March 6, 1942. He was presumably still able to take part in their burial at the Ilandkoppel Jewish Cemetery. With their death, however, the financial and emotional support also ended, as did the warm meals.
Eugen Philipp Bauer received his deportation order for Theresienstadt Ghetto a few weeks later and had to report to the assembly point at the Altonaer Straße/ Sternschanze school. He was deported to Theresienstadt at 8:45 a.m. on Wednesday, July 15, 1942 from the Hanover train station along with 925 other people. The train reached Theresienstadt one day later on July 16, 1942.
There Eugen Philipp Bauer defied the inhumane living conditions for almost another year. He died of "heart failure" in Theresienstadt on July 4, 1943.
His divorced wife Else Bauer died on December 21, 1952 at Isestraße 69/ Harvestehude.
The daughter Anna Liebke married on March 30, 1930 and was then called Köhn. She later divorced her husband and died in Hamburg on June 18, 1975.
We have no knowledge of the fate of the adopted daughter Else Bauer. She died in Hamburg on June 9, 1991.
On the fate of the other siblings of Eugen Philipp Bauer:
Olga Bauer (born 26.12.1864) died on April 4, 1869 and was buried in the Jewish Grindelfriedhof.
Conrad Philipp Bauer (born 12.2.1871), married since Feb. 12, 1929 to the non-Jewish Helene, née Greve (born 24.5.1888), died in Hamburg on March 28, 1927.
Paul Ludwig Bauer (born 29.11.1877), had married the non-Jewish Frida Emma Caroline, née Heylmann (born 16.5.1890) on 14 October 1916. He died on June 8, 1918 and was buried in the Jewish Cemetery Ilandkoppel.
Rudolf Bauer (born 11.3.1880) lived for many years as a traveler at Strassburger Strasse 6 (today Daumierstrasse) in Leipzig. His wife Amalie Friederike Hildegard, née Hulsch (born 2.3.1891) was not Jewish. From November 1 to December 15, 1938, Rudolf Bauer was imprisoned in the Sachsenhausen concentration camp. He survived National Socialism, probably thanks to his mixed marriage. In 1948 he was listed in the Leipzig address book with the address Pestalozzistrasse 2.
Translation Beate Meyer
Stand: February 2023
© Bärbel Klein
Quellen: 1; 2; 4; 5; 7; 8; 9; StaH 111-2_B II b 172 UA 3; 331-5_3 Akte_398 / 1942; 331-5_3 Akte_762/1942; 131-15_D 16 Gustav Liebke; 232-3_H 15880 Testament von Philipp Louis Bauer; 332-3_3401/1875; 332-5_4705/1877; 332-5_1113/1880; 332-5_109/1884; 332-5_909/1892; 332-5_933/1894; 332-5_372/1901; 332-5_477/1902; 332-5_1557/1902; 332-5_1409/1905; 332-5_415/1975; 332-5_308/1904; 332-5_455/1907; 332-5_362/1916; 332-5_163/1917; 332-5_971/1918; 332-5_525/1920; 332-5_126/1927; 332-5_120/1942; 332-5_215/1942; 332-5_602/1952; 351-11_939; 351-11_14363; 351-14_939; 614-1/71_177; 741-4_K2439; 231-3_B 15460;BBA, NSDAP-Gaukartei | BArch R 9361-IX KARTEI / 17641480; Geburtsurkunde 450/1891 aus Dresden; Karteikarte aus Leipzig des jüdischen Religionsverbandes; Census zur Volkszählung; www.geni.com; www.wikipedea.de; www.ancestry.de (Einsicht am 28.9.2020); www.ancestry.de Volkszählung England 1901 (Einsicht am 28.2.2022); diverse Hamburger Adressbücher.
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