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Taube Toni Schullerer * 1928

Wohlers Allee 38 (Altona, Altona-Altstadt)

JG. 1928

further stumbling stones in Wohlers Allee 38:
Adolf Uscher Friedmann, Berta Brandla Friedmann, Hanna Toni Friedmann, Berta Ruth Friedmann, Siegbert Friedmann, Golda Friedmann, Mirjam Friedmann, Szyja Schullerer, David Schullerer, Scheindel Sabina Weissmann, Nechemiah Norbert Weissmann

Szyja (Osias) Schullerer, born 31.1.1894 in Wojnitz/Galicia, transported to the Polish border near Zbaszyn (German Bentschen) on 28.10.1938, probably deported from near Tarnow to Sanalny/Siberia in early 1940, perished on 19.7.1942

Taube Toni Schullerer, born 27.7.1928 in Hamburg, transported to the Polish border near Zbaszyn (German Bentschen) on 28.10.1938, murdered near Tarnow at the end of December 1939

David Schullerer, born 6.12.1930 in Hamburg, transported to the Polish border near Zbaszyn (German Bentschen) on 28.10.1938, murdered near Tarnow at the end of December 1939

Wohlers Allee 38 (Altona-Altstadt)

The pious Jewish Schullerer family, originating from Galicia, was transported by rail from Hamburg-Altona station to Neu Bentschen (Zbąszynek) to the Polish border on October 28, 1938, together with about a thousand Jewish women, men and children of Polish origin living in Hamburg, and forcibly driven across it at Zbaszyn (German Bentschen). Mainly near Zbaszyn (Bentschen), but also near Chojnice (Konitz) in Pomerania and Bytom in Upper Silesia, about 17,000 Jews of Polish nationality were deported from the German Reich to Poland in the course of this mass expulsion, which was called "Polenaktion" by the National Socialists.

The Schullerer family included the merchant Szyja (Osias) Schullerer, born on January 31, 1894 in Wojnitz near Tarnow in what was then Austrian Galicia (now Poland), his wife Brancia (Berta), née Gutstein, born on March 20, 1894 in Bołszow and Sara Gutstein, born June 10, 1889 in Bołszowce in what was then also Austrian Galicia (today Bilsziwci - a settlement in the Ivano-Frankivsk oblast, Halychyna region in Ukraine), and their children Josef Leib, born July 14, 1927 in Hamburg, Taube Toni, born July 27, 1928 in Hamburg, David, born December 6, 1930 in Hamburg, and Rosa (Shoshana), born March 21, 1936 in Hamburg.

Brancia Gutstein, as she was still called at that time, had moved with her parents Taube Gutstein and Israel Ozer Abraham Shifman from Bołszowce to Lüneburg towards the end of 1915. A prerequisite for the immigration permit was an impeccable "certificate of morality", today one would probably call it a certificate of good conduct. She ran a trade in white goods and haberdashery there (white goods were often referred to as underwear in the past, haberdashery included sewing supplies).

Brancia Gutstein's siblings, also born in Bołszowce, the "traveler" (salesman) David Gutstein, born February 2, 1897, Vittel Gutstein, born March 18, 1898, and Sara Gutstein, born June 10, 1899, had also settled in Lüneburg between 1916 and 1919.

In 1920, the merchant Szyja Schullerer, who was later also called Osias, had also settled there, coming from Cologne-Mühlheim. He dealt in textile goods. He had moved from Lüneburg to the then still independent Prussian city of Altona, initially to the street Neueburg 27 (today Reeperbahn between Große Freiheit and Holstenstraße). He registered a trade on April 3, 1922, opened a ready-to-wear clothing store at Fährstraße 50 in Wilhelmsburg, and then lived at Schüttstraße 18 in Harburg.

Szyja Schullerer and Brancia Gutstein may have met in Lüneburg through their same business. On February 22, 1923, Brancia Gutstein, who called herself Berta in Germany, moved in with Szyja Schullerer at Schüttstraße 18. Five days later, on February 27, 1923, they were married at the registry office in Altona.

Like the Schullerer family, in the 19th century and until the end of the First World War, non-Jewish and Jewish Belorussians, Lithuanians, Poles and Ukrainians, who had no prospect of finding work and a livelihood in their homeland or were subject to discrimination, had emigrated from the dominions of the partitioning powers of Russia, Prussia and Austria, often to America. A relatively small number from the Austrian and Russian partition territories turned to Germany. Many succeeded in settling in their new environment.

The Treaty of Versailles of June 28, 1919, stipulated, among other things, that every person could obtain citizenship in the state in which he now lived as a result of the partition, or opt for his old citizenship. The Polish government's implementing regulations, especially the Decree on Obtaining Polish Citizenship of January 20, 1920 (Journal of Laws of the Republic of Poland, 1920 No. 7, poz. 44) were very complicated. They required that former residents of the former partition territories living abroad actively seek Polish citizenship. Most were unaware of this legal development. Therefore, many left their status unresolved and focused primarily on securing their material existence.

For the Schullerer family, too, the question of citizenship was initially of no importance, but it was to determine their further fate in 1938. We do not know whether Szyja Schullerer and Brancia Gutstein had to prove a nationality to the Altona registrar for their banns. In the marriage certificate of 1923 it was only recorded that both had been born in Poland, their nationality remained unmentioned. The Schullerer couple considered themselves - and the Hamburg authorities also classified them - as a Jewish family of Polish nationality.

After their marriage, the Schullerer couple lived for many years at Schüttstraße 18 in Harburg. Here they three of their four children were born: Josef Leib, Taube Toni and David.

Berta Schullerer worked in her husband's business. The textile trade flourished so successfully that the family was able to live well from the profits. In May 1934, the family moved into a three-room apartment at Wohlers Allee 38 in Altona-Altstadt. We do not know the reason for the move, but it is possible that the living conditions at Schüttstraße 18 had become too cramped for the family of five by then.

For the choice of the new residence in Wohlers Allee, however, it could also have been of importance that some Jewish families who had immigrated from the East had already settled in the middle-class residential street. Although the "German Jews" and most of the "Eastern Jews" used German as a colloquial language, the two groups hardly interacted socially and privately.

For Osias Schullerer, who was referred to as a rabbi by his wife in the later reparation proceedings, the fact that there were small Orthodox synagogues in the immediate vicinity, namely at Wohlers Allee 62 and also at nearby Adolphstraße 69 (today Bernstorffstraße), may also have played a role. Osias Schullerer belonged to the Hochdeutscher Israeliten-Gemeinde in Altona as of April 1, 1935.

Another reason for moving into Wohlers Allee 38 could have been that the large house was occupied at that time by the Jewish Weissmann family (see and the owner, the Jewish merchant Adolph Uscher Friedmann (see and his family, among other Jewish fellow citizens.

On March 21, 1936, Rosa, the fourth child, was born at Wohlers Allee 38 in Altona.

The eldest son Josef Leib attended the Talmud-Tora-Realschule in the Grindelviertel in Hamburg, the children Taube Tony and David the "Israelitische Gemeindeschule in Altona", Palmaille 17.
With the transfer of power to Adolf Hitler and the National Socialists, living conditions for Jewish people in the German Reich, and thus also for the Jewish Schullerer family, changed radically in a short time.

The textile store in Fährstraße had to be closed down after the boycott in April 1933. Osias Schullerer managed to get a job at the Margarine-Werke Thoerl in Hamburg-Wilhelmsburg, which paid RM 180 per month. (By comparison, a butcher earned around RM 215 per month in 1933). At this company he also worked as an honorary ritual supervisor (Kashrut supervisor). It was his task to ensure that the margarine intended for Jews was produced and delivered according to the ritual regulations. He remained in this position until the end of October 1938.

The income Osias Schullerer received for his work at the Thoerl Margarine factory was not enough to support the family of six. Berta Schullerer therefore registered a poultry business at Schüttstraße 18 as late as 1933. The non-Jewish daughter of the house owner recalled that there were regularly live chickens in the Schullerers' apartment and on the house floor, which were later slaughtered and sold. Mrs. Schullerer was the only one who carried out this chicken trade, as she had taken on most of the business. The husband had prayed a lot and had sheched as well as had given Hebrew lessons free of charge. He was completely absorbed in his faith.

After moving to Wohlers Allee, Berta Schullerer continued to trade in poultry. She operated the business in the spacious basement rooms belonging to the apartment. She proved to be very successful after a short time and was able to expand the poultry business to the point where she could employed a person and also supplied poultry to customers outside of Altona. Her income from this business very soon reached RM 250 to RM 300 per month, and often around RM 500 during the months with Jewish holidays.

The butcher employed by the Jewish community in Altona traveled weekly to Denmark for slaughtering and then regularly supplied Berta Schullerer with poultry. Four other Jewish suppliers worked in Berlin. The success of the business can also be seen in the fact that a nanny and a domestic helper were constantly employed. Berta Schullehrer managed the poultry business until she had to leave Germany.

On October 28, 1938, about 1,000 Hamburg Jews of Polish origin were arrested by the Ordnungspolizei and the Gestapo as part of the so-called Polenaktion, transported from Hamburg by rail and brutally driven across the German-Polish border near the Polish town of Zbaszyn. In addition to the Schullerer family, these people included their neighbors at Wohlersallee 38, the married couple Nechemiah and Scheindel Sabina Weissmann, as well as the family of Adolf Uscher Friedmann. The latter's brother Martin Friedmann lived with his family at Wohlers Allee 62. The family was also deported. From these two houses alone, 21 people were affected, including 13 children or young people.

The following account Berta Schullerer, a survivor, wrote after the war for the restitution, the so-called Wiedergutmachungsverfahren.

"On October 28, 1938, we were awakened at 5:00 in the morning by police officers. My husband was ordered to get dressed and come with us immediately. He was taken along without being given the opportunity to take even the smallest thing with him. The only thing he had with him was the prayer bag. [...] In his excitement he even left his dentures behind.

In my excitement I tried to find out the whereabouts of my husband and found that he was in a school yard, there I was even allowed to go and talk to him. In this yard were all the Polish Jews who had already been rounded up, and they were still in the process of rounding up others.

After standing around for hours, my husband was taken to a police station.

The rumor circulated among those already arrested that they would soon be released. My husband also tried to appease me with this explanation.

When I returned to my apartment in the afternoon between 4 and 4 1/2 o'clock to light the Shabbat lights, three German Gestapo men stood at the door to take me away. I was told that I would be taken to my husband. They explained to me that my husband had asked me to come. It turned out that this was an outright lie, because my husband knew nothing about it.

I still asked the policemen to let the Shabbat lights end, which they still generously allowed me to do. I took my four children, who were then about eleven to two and a half years old, as they were dressed, and went with them to my husband. I, too, could not take anything with me, not even something to eat for the children. The Gestapo people locked the apartment and kept the key with them.

Our completely furnished, well-equipped three-room apartment, including all our belongings, silver, service, crystal, dishes, clothes for the whole family, and everything in general, was left behind in the apartment.

When I came to Hamburg in 1946 to look for my things and my apartment, I found strangers there and nothing of my things was left.

I was taken with my children to the police station, where I met my husband again. That same evening - it was a Friday evening [Friday, October 28, 1938]- we were taken by truck to the train station [Altona], there we were loaded onto trains and deported to Zbaszyn under German guard.

At the German-Polish border all our belongings were taken from us by Germans, we were searched and had to hand over any amounts we had in excess of RM 10."

Berta Schullerer further reported:
"We arrived in Poland at the end of October 1938 completely penniless and inadequately clothed, and had to live there in the most primitive conditions; we had to spend the first night outdoors in pouring rain. My main concern at that time was to protect my four small children to some extent and not to let them starve.

In Poland they did not want to let us in at all, the Poles did not recognize us as Polish citizens. At first we had to stay in a refugee camp in Bentschen, where there were no schools at all. Some camp inmates, including my husband, gave emergency lessons to the children in the camp, but there was absolutely no question of regular instruction. There was a lack of everything, teachers, learning materials, classrooms, and the children had the most varied previous education for the lessons.

Even later when we were allowed to leave the camp, my children could not attend a proper school because they did not know a word of Polish and would not have been able to follow a normal class. After the children suddenly had to stop attending school due to the deportation from Germany, they never attended a proper school again and therefore did not finish their schooling."

The family remained in the camp in Bentschen for nine months and then came to eastern Poland, whether by their own decision or by order of the Polish authorities, we do not know. A short time later, in September 1939, the German Wehrmacht invaded Poland.

Berta Schullerer:
"In December 1939 we were in a small village near Tarnow. At the end of December - it was just after Christmas - on a Friday afternoon [probably 29.12.1939] a raid by the Germans took place in the little town mentioned, directed against the children. We were herded into the street, and two SS men took my son David and my daughter Dove Tony by the hand and ordered my son Josef to go after them.

They left me and my husband behind after they tried to snatch my daughter Rosa, whom I was holding in my arms, but I held her so tightly that the men left without taking the child away from me. The son Josef noticed that my husband was making signs for him to come back and ran back to us. The two SS men moved away with the other two children.

All this took place in the midst of a desolate slaughter. [...] We wanted to save what could be saved, at least our own lives and those of the two children we had left, and fled the town. I never saw the children David and Tony again, and there cannot be the slightest doubt that on that day they fell victim to the slaughter organized by the Germans. I am strengthened by the fact that the daughter Pigeon Tony, while being led away by the SS man by the hand, screamed terribly, and that I had seen that especially screaming children were immediately disposed of.

With my husband, who had died in the meantime, and with my two children Joseph and Rosa, I fled first to Eastern Galicia, and was there in Stanislawow."

On the basis of the German-Soviet treaty of August 23, 1939, and the Secret Additional Protocol of September 28, 1939, the Ukrainian-populated eastern Polish territories, including Stanislawow, fell under Soviet administration. The Soviets deported Berta and Osias Schullerer with their children Rosa and Josef to Siberia. They had to do hard labor in the forests, which Osias did not survive. "He was not able to cope with the efforts, suffering and privations in Siberia and died on July 18, 1942 in Sanalny/Siberia," Berta Schullerer reported.

She continued:
"After the war, I came to Stettin with my daughter Rosa in April 1946, where I was only for a very short time, then to Bad Segeberg, from where I was sent to the DP camp in Neustadt after about two weeks. From there I was sent to the Bergen-Belsen DP camp in the fall of 1946. There my son Josef worked as a camp policeman. We remained in Bergen-Belsen until mid-May 1947, when we emigrated to Palestine. On May 30, 1947, I arrived in Palestine with my daughter Rosa, where I have lived ever since."

Josef Schullerer was killed in the Israeli War of Independence on July 9, 1948.

Rosa Schullerer attended elementary school in Palestine, learned child care and married in 1954. With her husband Daniel ben Moshe, she had three daughters.

Only incomplete information can be found about Berta Schullerer's siblings who, like her, lived for a time in Lüneburg:
David Gutstein, her brother, had moved from Lüneburg to Altona and then to Dortmund. He traveled from Rotterdam to New York in September 1938, worked there as a tailor, and obtained American citizenship.

We do not know Vittel Gutstein's fate, Berta Schullerer's sister.

Sara Gutstein, Berta Schullerer's second sister, moved to Essen in 1921, married in Dortmund and now bore the surname Kohn. Before her deportation to Bentschen on October 28, 1938, she lived in Herten/Recklinghausen. We do not know her further fate.

Translation Beate Meyer

Stand: February 2023
© Ingo Wille

Quellen: 1; 5; 9; StaH213-13 Landgericht Hamburg – Wiedergutmachung, 26535 Erben nach Osiasz Schullerer, 31653 Bertha Schullehrer, 332-5 Standesämter 6071 Heiratsregister Nr. 177/1923 Szyja Schullerer/Brancia Gutstein, 351-11 Amt für Wiedergutmachung 49071 Toni Schullerer, 49706 David Schullerer, 48692 Josef Schullerer, 11621 Berta (Bertha) Schullerer, 16809 Berta (Bertha) Schullerer, 741-4 Meldewesen K4548 (Schullerer); Bundesarchiv, Gedenkbuch Opfer der Verfolgung der Juden unter der nationalsozialistischen Gewaltherrschaft in Deutschland 1933 – 1945: David Schullehrer, Sara Saly Kohn geb. Gutstein, Ozjasz Szyja Schullehrer, Toni Tauba Schullehrer; Stadtarchiv Lüneburg, Meldekarten Gutstein und Schullerer; Alina Bothe, Gertrud Pickhan (Hrsg.); Ausgewiesen! Berlin, 28.10.1938, Die Geschichte der "Polenaktion", Berlin 2018; Marian Wojciechowski, Die deutsche Minderheit in Polen (1920-1939), in: Deutsche und Polen zwischen den Kriegen. Minderheitenstatus und "Volkstumskampf" im Grenzgebiet (1920-1939). Texte und Materialien zur Zeitgeschichte, Bd. 9/1. Hrsg. von Rudolf Jaworski und Marian Wojciechowski, München u.a. 1997, S. 6 ff.; Ina Lorenz und Jörg Berkemann, Die Hamburger Juden im NS-Staat 1933 bis 1938/39, Band II, S. 1096-1107, Göttingen 2016; Beate Meyer (Hrsg.), Die Verfolgung und Ermordung der Hamburger Juden 1933-1945, 2. Aufl., Hamburg 2007, S. 25; Jerzey Tomaszewski, Auftakt zur Vernichtung, Warschau 1998, S. 15 ff.; Statistisches Jahrbuch für die Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Jahrgang 1933/1934, Hamburg 1934, S. 130 (mit eigener Umrechnung); Jürgen Sielemann, Paul Flamme, Hamburger jüdische Opfer des Nationalsozialismus – Gedenkbuch, Staatsarchiv Hamburg 1995, S. XVII; https://www.jü, Zugriff 23.8.2021). The Central Archives for the History of the Jewish People Jerusalem (CAHJP), (Zugriff 5.9.2021)
David Gutstein: New York, USA, Listen ankommender Passagier und Besatzungen (einschließlich Castle Garden und Ellis Island), 1820-1957 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Operations, Inc., 2010 (Zugriff 4.9.2021).
Hinweise und Ergänzungen der Angehörigen Sigi Klein, Michal Ben-Moshe und Adi Talbe zum Stammbaum der Familie in diversen emails.
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