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Friederike Davidsohn in der „Staatskrankenanstalt Friedrichsberg“
Friederike Davidsohn in der "Staatskrankenanstalt Friedrichsberg"
© Archiv Universitätsklinik Eppendorf

Friederike Davidsohn * 1891

Kurzer Kamp 6 Altenheim (Hamburg-Nord, Fuhlsbüttel)

1942 Theresienstadt
1943 weiterdeportiert nach Auschwitz

further stumbling stones in Kurzer Kamp 6 Altenheim:
Dr. Julius Adam, Johanna Hinda Appel, Sara Bromberger, Therese Bromberger, Margarethe Davidsohn, Gertrud Embden, Katharina Embden, Katharina Falk, Auguste Friedburg, Jenny Friedemann, Mary Halberstadt, Käthe Heckscher, Emily Heckscher, Betty Hirsch, Hanna Hirsch, Regina Hirschfeld, Clara Horneburg, Anita Horneburg, Emma Israel, Jenny Koopmann, Franziska Koopmann, Martha Kurzynski, Laura Levy, Chaile Charlotte Lippstadt, Isidor Mendelsohn, Balbine Meyer, Helene Adele Meyer, Ida Meyer, Ella Rosa Nauen, Celine Reincke, Friederike Rothenburg, Benny Salomon, Elsa Salomon, Martha Rosa Schlesinger, Louis Stiefel, Sophie Stiefel, Louise Strelitz, Eugenie Hanna Zimmermann

Margarethe Davidsohn, née Sachs, born 18.11.1867 in Breslau, deported on 19.7.1942 to Theresienstadt, perished on 6.8.1942 in the Theresienstadt Ghetto
Friederike Davidsohn, born 18.9.1891 in Bromberg, deported on 19.7.1942 to Theresienstadt, further deported on 23.1.1943 to Auschwitz and murdered

Kurzer Kamp 6, Old People's Home (Hamburg-North, Fuhlsbüttel), designated 1939 a "Judenstift"

Margarethe Sachs was born in Breslau on November 18, 1867, the daughter of Henriette, née Lewinsohn, and the "Kommissionär" (i.e. a merchant who traded in the goods of others) Daniel Wilhelm Sachs. The family lost their father early; he died on May 31, 1868, at the age of 35. Margarethe was six months old. Her brother Eugen (born July 18, 1862 in Breslau) then grew up in a Jewish orphanage. He received a good education, studied medicine and earned his doctoral diploma in Breslau. In 1888 he moved to Hamburg and settled as a general practitioner, later wound surgeon and obstetrician, at Steindamm 76, 2nd floor. We know nothing about Margarethe's childhood, school years, or possible education.

On April 29, 1889, Margarethe Sachs, at the age of 22, married in Breslau Moritz Davidsohn (b. 6/26/1860), who was seven years older and from Bromberg. He was the son of Freude, called Fritze or Friederike, née Nast, and the master shoemaker Simon Davidsohn. His parents had already ordered the banns in 1850 and were married in Bromberg on August 12, 1857 according to Jewish custom. Moritz Davidsohn had learned the same trade as his father. Ten months after their marriage, their son Willi Daniel was born on February 13, 1890 in Bromberg, Friedrichstraße 33. He was named after his deceased maternal grandfather. Margarethe Davidsohn's mother had moved to Hamburg early that year and was living with her son Dr. Eugen Sachs. That summer, Margarethe's mother-in-law, Fritze Davidsohn, died in Bromberg. She found her final resting place there in the Jewish cemetery. Then in November, Albert, Margarethe's brother-in-law, her husband's younger brother, had the adjacent grave site No. 269 reserved for their father. At the end of the year, on December 15, 1890, Margarethe's sister-in-law Nanny Davidsohn (b. 12.7.1864 in Bromberg) married the dentist Leo Levy (b. 9.9.1866), also from there, and moved with him to Stettin.

On September 18, 1891, Margarethe and Moritz Davidsohn's second child, a daughter, was born in Friedrichstraße in Bromberg. She was given the first name Friederike after her grandmother who had died there a year earlier. At first, Moritz Davidsohn continued to run the shoemaker's shop in Bromberg. His siblings and father had already left the city.

His older brother David Davidsohn, called "Dalusch" in the family (born 1851), had emigrated to the USA before 1880 and worked in a tobacco store in New York. He had married Frederica Minna, née Rosenfeld, who was born in Bad Oeynhausen.

His older sister Clara (b. Nov. 12, 1857 in Bromberg) had moved to Stettin with husband Daniel Arensberg (b. Aug. 22, 1848 in Blomberg, Lippe) after her marriage on July 28, 1885. Sister Nanny also lived in Stettin with three sons. There, in the Falkenwalderstraße 15, the father Simon Davidsohn had also moved. He came from Lipnow, Russian Poland, and died at the age of 71, on July 27, 1894, in Stettin. He found his final resting place in the Jewish cemetery there.

The younger brother Albert Davidsohn (b. 7/2/1862) had gone to Sweden with a leather agency at the turn of the century, as had the older brother Max Davidsohn (b. 12/3/1852), who had already married Emma Mattson (b. 12/6/1851), a native of Rauseters, Sweden, in Bydgoszcz in June 1881 on a free religious basis. Later they adopted a daughter.

The fate of his sister Cäcilie, (born 18.10.1858 in Bromberg) is still unknown.

Another sister with the same name was born ten years later in Bromberg: Cäcilie Davidsohn (born 1.12.1868), called Cilly. As an adult she came to Stockholm after a stay in Lübeck and married the authorised signatory Knut Kjarrström, (b. 19.2.1865) there on 10 March 1899. Their daughter Ingrid Fredrika Katarina was born the following year.

Moritz Davidsohn's sister Adeline (b. Dec. 16, 1856), who had also lived on Friedrichstraße, married the merchant Adolph Gollubier (b. March 11, 1855 in Schwetz) in Bromberg on Dec. 23, 1879. They had four children in Bromberg: Martin (born 1880), Julius (born 1882), Erich (born 1883) and Miriam (born 1886). Then Adeline Gollubier also emigrated to the USA with her husband and children.

Moritz Davidsohn was still to be found in 1896 with the "Schuhmacherei zum rothen Stiefel" in Bromberg, Poststraße 2. A year later, he is no longer listed at this address in the Bromberg address book, but as a merchant at Theaterplatz 4. Moritz and Margarethe Davidsohn decided to leave Bromberg and move to Hamburg, near Margarethe's mother and brother. When the family arrived in Hamburg at the end of June 1897, Willi was seven and Friederike almost six years old. Four months later, in October 1897, Moritz Davidsohn registered his business as an "auctioneer and shoe agent" (merchant) in the Neustadt, Fuhlentwiete 80, first floor. In the following year, Moritz Davidsohn, together with Margarethe, Willi Daniel and Friederike, was admitted to the Hamburg State Association as Hamburg citizens on July 26, 1898. In his admission record, "Ersatzreserve" is entered under the heading Military Relations. His taxable annual income is listed as 1,500 marks. The family lived at Steindamm 53 on the 4th floor, where Mortiz Davidsohn ran his shoe business, in the neighborhood of Margarethe's mother and brother.

Margarethe's mother Henriette Sachs, née Lewinsohn (b. 15.4.1835 in Ostrowo), died on 22 June 1900 in the spa town of Bad Landeck in Silesia.
After the "Jahrzeit”, the Jewish period of mourning after the death of a parent, Eugen Sachs married Bertha, née Arensberg (b. Jan. 26, 1882 in Blomberg) in Stettin on Sept. 26, 1901. She was the daughter of Daniel Arensberg and Köhlchen (b. 1851), the now deceased wife from his first marriage. Daniel Arensberg was married in third marriage to Clara, née Davidsohn, a sister of Moritz Davidsohn. Heinz Wilhelm, the son of Bertha and Eugen Sachs, was born in Hamburg on July 10, 1902.

Margarethe and Moritz Davidsohn's daughter Friederike, called "Frieda," worked as a saleswoman after her school days, presumably in her father's store. She was not yet 18 years old when she came to Dr. Baumann, a nose doctor, for treatment in Reinbeck in July 1909 because of the symptoms of headache, faintness and paleness. In early August, facial pain, confusion of persons, and states of agitation were added. After an examination and with a certificate from Dr. Lorey, Eppendorf Hospital, Friederike was taken by her relatives to the "Staatskrankenanstalt Friedrichsberg" on August 7, 1909.

It is recorded in the hospital file that she was very agitated on admission, resisted being weighed and measured. She was accommodated in house 10. From the information given by her uncle Eugen Sachs on August 21, 1909, it can be learned that Friederike had studied moderately well at school and had never suffered from convulsions during this time. He speculated that in the last weeks, when the states of agitation set in, a sexual trauma had taken place: "[...] she seems to have been smooched off." Friederike had, since her father was lung sick at the time, been left to herself a lot and had been able to pursue "fantastic thoughts."

Her illness was diagnosed as dementia praecox, "juvenile insanity." She did not have sensory delusions; her "theatrical impression" was treated with a "pack," "Veronal," "Duboisin," and a "permanent bath." Because of her insufficient food intake, it was recorded: "[...] she must be fed under constant duress." After four months of hospitalization, Friederike Davidsohn was granted leave of absence and was "discharged as improved" on February 9, 1910.

Around this time, Moritz Davidsohn's sister Clara Arensberg and her two children Emil and Marie moved from Stettin to Hamburg, to Isestraße 69. Her husband Daniel Arensberg had died in Stettin on December 26, 1902, and was buried there in the municipal cemetery.

In September 1911, at the age of 51, Moritz Davidsohn moved with Margarethe and the children from Hamburg to the independent Prussian town of Wandsbek as a "privatier" (someone who lives off his assets) and rented a room at Steffens, Neue Bahnhofstraße 12 (today Schädlerstraße), first floor. Their two children, Friederike and Willi, were registered on their own personal card.

At that time, the 21-year-old son Willi Davidsohn was working as a commercial assistant. In the report for the Office for War Statistics of the Jews, Berlin, it is recorded for him, in addition to this address, that he worked at that time as a "Konfektionär" (manufacturer of ready-made clothing) in an employment relationship. Possibly he was employed by Max Davidsohn, who is listed in the Hamburg address book for the year 1911 with "Herrengarderoben" at Wandsbeker Chaussee 201. (He was not his uncle. Whether there was a family relationship between them could not be clarified). His son Herbert was drafted into the military with him, his brother Walter Davidsohn of the same age two years later.

According to his muster records in 1910, Willi Davidsohn was 1.62 m tall and weighed 50.5 kg. He participated as a soldier in World War I, which took him to Belgium and Holland, among other places. On April 15, 1916, he joined the Field Artillery Regiment 45, II Replacement Battalion IX, Army Corps, Landsturm II as a gunner as a telephonist. On November 24, 1916, he transferred to the garrison battery and on September 20, 1917, he served as a Landsturmmann with the replacement battalion in Landwehr Regiment 75. The regiment's location was in Altona-Bahrenfeld. Willi Davidsohn returned from the war unharmed.

On June 21, 1918, the Davidsohn family moved back to Hamburg, to Hohenfelde to Freiligrathstraße 15, first floor. Walter Davidsohn, who had also returned from the war, lived in the same street, No. 12. They stayed close to Margarethe's brother Eugen Sachs, who lived at Lübeckerstraße 74.

Willi Davidsohn showed a preference for color as a means of expression at an early age. The "rothe Stiefel", the trademark of his father's shoe store had symbolically accompanied Willi during his childhood in Bromberg. After the war, Willi Davidsohn decided not to continue in the profession of a merchant, but to become a painter according to his inclinations. Where he trained as a painter or whether he completed a course of study could not be proven. What is known is that he took courses at the Hamburg Technikum, near the Berliner Tor. There, in a room in the attic, he had set up a workshop. He probably developed his artistic skills largely as an autodidact. That Willi Davidsohn studied at the Dresden Art Academy under Gotthard Kühl, who taught there from 1895 to 1915, as is stated in art encyclopedias, could not be proven in the archives of the Dresden Art Academy. Willi Davidsohn is neither listed in the register of the Dresden Art Academy from 1908 to 1925 nor in the student lists of the School of Applied Arts there. Already Hans Leip (H. L.) wrote in the "Neue Hamburger Zeitung" on July 13, 1918: "The contact with Gotthard Kühe [Kühl] in Dresden must have been very fleeting." "Willy Davidson", as an artist he used this spelling of his name, became a founding and board member of the artist association "Hamburgische Sezession" in 1919. The first exhibition took place on December 14, 1919 in the Hamburg Kunsthalle. The sculptor Friedrich Wield (born 1880), whose existence was later threatened by the National Socialists and who then took his own life in 1940, created an impressive bronze bust of Willy Davidson in that year, which can be seen today in the new sculpture hall of the Hamburg Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe.

Ten years had passed for Friederike Davidsohn without any further behavioral problems. On May 10, 1920, she was brought to Dr. Lienau in the mental hospital "Eichenhain" Hamburg, Eichenstraße 34, with the certificate of her uncle Eugen Sachs because of "mental illness". In the protocol, her uncle describes her developmental course as normal, except for an "attack of dementia praecox" (premature dementia) ten years ago with the hospital stay in Friedrichsberg. Following in the footsteps of her brother, she is said to have discovered an artistic predisposition and began to write, for example, a "fairy tale full of music" dedicated to Bach, Beethoven and Mozart. Lately she has been hearing voices and feels haunted by her mother.
In the clinic, Friederike was observed to be very moody, "laughing and singing sky-high" and "sobbing, supposedly out of longing for her music teacher Anna Bauer, whom she loves so much." From the minutes from the end of May to the end of October 1920, we learn that she sometimes referred to herself as "Princess Lydia of Denmark," then as "the Souae." Because she largely refused to eat, she was at times force-fed. On July 30, 1920, after the visit of her brother Willy, it is recorded: "[...] today's visit of her brother made Pat. happy, made her talkative and cheerful". From minutes between August and September 1920 we learn that she occasionally read in a Storm book and told her brother that the emperor, who according to the newspapers lived in Holland, had been in her room. She herself wanted to be addressed as Highness. She weighed only 36 kg at that time. On October 31, 1920, the protocol records an improvement: "[...] is visibly recovering physically. Had repeated visits from her father, her aunts and her uncle Dr. Sachs. Psoriasis largely healed." In December 1920 she was discharged from the Eichenhain Clinic as "unhealed (improved!)."

Willy Davidson wanted to take a trip to Italy and had a passport issued in February 1921. According to the passport record, he was a painter by profession; he is described as a young man of 31, of medium build, with an elongated face, black hair, and brown eyes.

In that year, on May 4, 1921, Friederike Davidsohn, at the age of 30, was admitted for a second time to the Friedrichsberg Institution by the physician Dr. Draseke (presumably Dr. Johannes Dräseke), a specialist in nervous and mental disorders, Esplanade 17, with the diagnosis "juvenile insanity - dementia praecox." During the admission interview, she reported on her life in the last ten years after her release from the clinic: "[...] in the office as a stenotopystin, and then I was very fond of music, went to the theater - and was in the art gallery and looked at paintings - well, just as every educated person lives.

She had been admitted to the hospital because she believed she had contracted a "terrible disease" and had been poisoned. She herself reflected on this: "There was actually no particular reason for this. - I only know that I was very fond of music - I had written a little fairy tale, it began 'In the Far Country of Unlimited Possibilities', dedicated to Bach, Mozart and Beethoven - and my mother is a very prosaic nature - she did not want me to write - that was the only reason". "Her nerves are healthy now - about a quarter of a year ago - she had run away from Lisby in Schleswig - she had been kissed by a man - since then she has felt ill". On August 11, 1921 it was recorded: I can't eat anything, people I love can't eat anything either, I don't need to eat anything at all! - Who is always calling me, is it you Ernesto Caruso?"

In December 1921, Friederike Davidsohn was given leave of absence and was released to go home on February 15, 1922. After four months, on June 23, 1922, she was again admitted to the Friedrichsberg Institution, with the medical diagnosis "requires admission due to mental illness (schizophrenic delusions, sensory delusions, manic states of excitement)." She remained in the clinic for two months. After an intervening leave of absence, she was then discharged on January 15, 1923.

Willy Davidson registered his business as a painter on May 26, 1923 at the business address Rothenbaumchaussee 26, 3rd floor. He had to pay a stamp duty of 10.000 marks for this, it was the time of inflation.

During the year and a half at home, things went well with Friederike Davidsohn at times. On August 6, 1924, her father again brought her to the Friedrichsberg clinic. According to his statements in the protocol, she behaved improperly toward relatives and did not recognize her parents. She became obsessed with the idea of being poisoned. To preserve her voice, she ate three boxes of salmiak pastilles a week, which she could not tolerate. She wanted to learn Japanese and acquire silk bedding, she said. She also displayed a certain "shamelessness." She tore out her hair more often. Friederike Davidson remained downstairs in Friedrichsberg, House 8, until March 30, 1926. Released home, she was again sent to Friedrichsberg State Hospital after five months, on August 6, 1926, transferred to House 6 on September 9, 1926, and to House 4 a year later.

In the same year Willy Davidson became a member of the Deutsch-Israelitische Gemeinde. The notation "gottgläubig" in his Kultussteuerkarte indicates a rather liberal Jewish religious orientation. With his friend, the interior designer Curt Ahleff, he lived in a studio apartment at Rothenbaumchaussee 26, 6th floor, from 1925. Legendary festivals and artists' meetings were held there. Events of the association "Künstlerfest Hamburg" in the Curiohaus, such as the "Götzenpauke", were co-designed and organized by Willy Davidson as a recognized artist.

February 11, 1928, brought a deep break in the lives of Margarethe, Friederike and Willy Davidson. The husband and father, Moritz Davidsohn, died at the age of 67 two days before Willy's 38th birthday in the Marienkrankenhaus in Uhlenhorst-Barmbek. He had suffered from a kidney pelvic inflammation. Four days later, his cremation took place at Ohlsdorf Crematorium; with an entourage and without a funeral service, his ashes were interred by the Elfers Funeral Home in an urn grave at Ohlsdorf Cemetery. Margarethe had reserved the grave site, with a free place for herself, grave site Z 27, No. 249/250. The designation "civil servant" mentioned in the death register could not be substantiated; in the Hamburg address book Moritz Davidsohn was listed as "private citizen" since 1911.

It can be seen from the Friedrichsberg minutes that Friederike had gained 26 kg in the last seven years and had a weight of 66 kg in December 1928. On September 19, 1929, she wrote a postcard to her mother with the return address "Cara Maria Elisabeth Nowosa, currently Friedrichsberg Hs 10. ausser Wache": "Mrs. M. Davidsohn, Freiligrathstraße 15 parterre, to inform you that I will not receive your visit from Sunday. To inform Prince Willi Davidsohn of this as well. Mrs. Barber also forbidden to visit me." Furthermore, in November 1931, one can learn about her life: "She is practicing pouring coffee and tea at communal meals, so that she will be able to do it later in her household when she has so many children. Has been doing Oki for 4 years. It's the only manual labor she picks up spontaneously."

Margarethe Davidsohn, as a widow, initially remained in her apartment in Hamburg-Hohenfelde until she was admitted to the Mendelson-Israel-Stift, Kurzer Kamp 6, Fuhlsbüttel, apartment No. 15, 1st floor, which was newly built in 1931.

In the years from 1926 to 1929, her son Willy Davidson had worked as a stage designer and member of the Hamburger Stadttheaters, then as a freelancer until 1931. On November 13, 1931, he took a trip to Paris. His financial situation became increasingly difficult. In 1931/32 his income was so low that he could no longer pay cult tax to the Jewish community. Since March 1932 he could no longer be found in his studio in Rothenbaumchaussee. At this time he was registered in Othmarschen at Ziethenstraße 17 with his friend Curt Ahleff.

In October 1932, Willy Davidson was drawn into criminal proceedings. He was accused by Freifrau A. v. H. of embezzling a painting. He had taken it on commission through an intermediary and, since he dealt in paintings on the side, was supposed to sell it. Willy Davidson was sentenced to return the painting by Gottlieb Schick, a Greek landscape, or to pay RM 250. In the civil suit, he had it declared that the painting was no longer there and that he did not know where it was.

On November 11, 1932, he was searched by Kriminalsekretär Wolff at the Mendelson-Israel-Stift at his mother's home. The police record shows that Margarethe Davidsohn initially wanted to protect her son and said that he was not available. Detective Wolff, who insisted on seeing the apartment, found Willy Davidson in the room and interrogated him. The circumstances of Willy Davidson's life with his mother and sister at that time are made clear in his statement at the time:
"The matter would have been settled by me if I had found a merit of any kind. To this day, however, I am still without steady earnings. From time to time, I barely earn enough through my painting to be able to make a living. I do not get any support. My mother has only enough to live on. From the welfare she receives RM 6,- per week. She also receives only a small allowance from relatives. Unfortunately, I am forced to bear the damage, although I am really not to blame. I can only say that I did not embezzle the painting. The same must have been stolen from me in some way. I did not report it to the police, because I still hoped that it would be found again. I do not refuse to pay for the damage. If I have fixed earnings, which I hope for, I will gradually pay off the R.M. 250,-. That's all I can do."

Willy Davidson stated that he was registered with the police at Ahleff in Altona-Othmarschen, Ziethenstraße 17. He intended to travel to Berlin again in the near future, but would leave his address. He was then asked to come with him to station 49 (Beim Storchennest 9, formerly between Rübenhofstraße and Maienweg). After it had been established that there was nothing against him at the identification service, he was released. For Tuesday, January 10, 1933, in the morning at "10 1/4 o'clock," Willy Davidson received a "summons for trial" in the Criminal Justice Building, Sievekingplatz, room 181.

The stresses of that time ended in tragedy for the Davidsohn family. Five years after Margarethe Davidsohn's husband, her son died at 12:30 a.m. on February 4, 1933, in the Barmbek General Hospital. He had been undergoing treatment by Dr. Zepelin since December 28, 1932. Willy Davidson had succumbed to valvulitis and heart failure ten days before his 43rd birthday. His cremation at the Ohlsdorf Crematory took place between 11:45 a.m. and 2:10 p.m. on February 9. The Greater Hamburg Funeral Association hosted a funeral service with decorations and entourage. His ashes were interred two days later in the urn grave next to his father in the Ohlsdorf cemetery, between the double grave site Z 27, No. 249/250, reserved by Margarethe. Today this grave site is covered with lawn.

The artists' association "Hamburgische Sezession", of which Willy Davidson had been a founding member and treasurer, was to be banned in 1933 when the National Socialists came to power. The members prevented this. They dissolved the association and disposed of the remaining assets. Willy Davidson did not live to see the last artists' festival a few weeks later under the motto "Heaven for a Time".

In the course of the National Socialist takeover in 1933, Margarethe's sister-in-law, the widow Clara Arensberg, née Davidsohn, left her apartment at Isestraße 69, where she had lived for 23 years. She emigrated to Stockholm. Her son Emil Arensberg with his wife Marie, née Matzdorf, and their children Hans Günter and Traute, as well as her daughter Marie Sekkel, née Arensberg, with her husband Jaques Sekkel and their children Robert, Werner and Liselott, also fled to Stockholm, and later partly to Canada and Brazil. Clara Arensberg's son Emil and her son-in-law Jaques Sekkel had founded a joint company in Hamburg and operated a skin and fur trade in Catharinenhof. Presumably, with the need for leather for Moritz Davidsohn's shoe trade, there had also been a business connection between the families earlier. Margarethe Davidsohn's brother-in-law Albert Davidsohn (born 7/2/1862 in Bromberg) lived in Stockholm. He had gone to Sweden with a leather agency at the turn of the century and had acquired a large fortune there. He had done a lot of trade with Russia until he lost everything as a result of the Russian Revolution. It is said that he went to the synagogue in Stockholm every four weeks and paraded on Good Friday in a high black hat to show that he respected the customs of his new fatherland. He was able to enable many relatives to emigrate from Germany to Sweden in the early 1930s and took them in in Stockholm. Albert Davidsohn died there in 1934.

Dr. Eugen Sachs had felt the persecution measures of the National Socialists as soon as they came to power and had to give up his practice, like all Jewish doctors. His son Heinz, who had passed his school-leaving examination at the Johanneum in 1920, passed the first state law examination in Hamburg in July 1932 and started his legal clerkship, was dismissed by the president of the judicial administration because of his Jewish descent. On August 2, 1933, he received his doctorate in law and emigrated to his relatives in Stockholm two weeks later. His father, Margarethe's brother, Eugen Sachs died on June 2, 1936 in his apartment at Lübeckerstraße 74. He was buried in an urn grave at the Jewish Cemetery Ohlsdorf, a grave site at his side was reserved. The graveside orators paid him great tribute for his tireless and unselfish social work.

Friederike Davidsohn had been employed at the Staatskrankenanstalt Friedrichsberg for four years until December 1933 in the lace-making school and after its closure in the vegetable cellar. On May 23, 1934, the records ended. She was finally dismissed after the Friedrichsberg State Hospital was dissolved. The note: "On April 5, 1935 'discharged to care home,'" meant for Friederike that she was sent to the Mendelson-Israel-Stift, where she lived with her mother from then on. Since September 1936 Margarethe Davidsohn was listed as a member in the Kultussteuerkartei of the Deutsch-Israelitischen Gemeinde.

Bertha Sachs, née Arensberg, the widow of Margarethe Davidsohn's brother, followed her son Heinz into exile in Stockholm in November 1938.
Dr. Ernst Friedrich Lührse (born 22.2.1894), son of her sister-in-law Nanny Lührse, née Davidsohn, who had practiced as a specialist in skin and urinary disorders in Hamburg since 1924, also emigrated to Sweden in February 1939 after his license to practice medicine in Hamburg was revoked.

The question remains open as to why Margarethe and Friederike Davidsohn were not able to escape to Sweden as well. It is not known whether they had made any efforts to emigrate at all. With Friederike's mental illness, it would certainly have been difficult or impossible to be accepted abroad. Both had to live on Jewish welfare since 1941. Margarethe and Friederike Davidsohn were deported from the Mendelson-Israel- Stift to Theresienstadt on July 19, 1942. Margarethe Davidsohn was able to withstand the inhumane conditions in the ghetto for two and a half weeks. On August 6, 1942, she died there at the age of 74. According to the death notice, she had been treated by Dr. Emil Schaufeld for "broncho pneunomia" and had died in room Qu 418 at 6:00 a.m. with her daughter Friederike. Friederike Davidsohn survived the following winter of hunger and cold. On January 23, 1943, she was assigned to the dreaded transports to the East and murdered in Auschwitz. She was 51 years old.

With the removal boxes of Bertha Sachs, née Arensberg, and her son Heinz, a photo album with family photos of the Davidsohn and Sachs families and several paintings by Willy Davidson, many of whose works have disappeared, also reached Sweden. Today they are treasured rarities as works of a member of the Hamburg Secession. Friederike and Willy Davidson's cousin, Heinz Sachs, died in Stockholm in 1973. Descendants of the extended Davidsohn family live in Sweden. Five Davidsohn sisters invited to a large family celebration in Lund on August 6, 2016, so that the reunion of the Arensberg, Sekkel and Davidsohn branches of the family from Brazil, the USA, Sweden and later Hamburg and Canada could also be enjoyed by the author.

Stand: August 2023
© Margot Löhr

Quellen: 1; 3; 4; 5; 7; 8; StaH, 213-11 Staatsanwaltschaft Landgericht Hamburg, A 5876 – 33; StaH, 213-13 Landgericht Hamburg, Rückerstattung, 14661 Ahrensberg und Sekkel; StaH, 314-15 Oberfinanzpräsident, F341 Willy Davidsohn; StaH, 332-5 Standesämter, Geburtsregister, 2131 u. 4438/1886 Alfred John Sekkel, 2179 u. 3886/1888 Jaques Sekkel; StaH, 332-5 Standesämter, Heiratsregister, 2629 u. 1012/1881 Abraham Sekkel/Giedel Käthchen Mormelstein, 8711 u. 255/1916 Jaques Sekkel/Marie Arensberg; StaH, 332-5 Standesämter, Sterberegister, 9738 u. 2136/1915 Alfred John Sekkel, 7083 u. 135/1928 Moritz Davidsohn, 9840 u. 576/1929 Abraham Sekkel, 7148 u. 176/1933 David Davidsohn; 7177 u. 494/1936 Eugen Sachs, 8144 u. 213/1937 Kätchen Sekkel; StaH, 332-7 Staatsangehörigkeitsaufsicht, B III 57021 Moritz Davidsohn, B III 118221 Eugen Sachs, B III 142607 Richard Sachs; StaH, 332-8 Meldewesen, A 24 Bd. 241 Nr. 3264/1921, A 4 Bd. 287 Nr. 15742/1923, A 24 Bd. 353 Nr. 12922/1927; StaH, 342-2 Militär-Ersatzbehörden, D II Nr. 140 Bd.2 Willi Davidsohn; StaH, 352-5 Todesbescheinigungen,1928 Sta 21 Nr. 135 Moritz Davidsohn; 1929 Sta 3a Nr. 576 Abraham Sekkel, 1933 Sta 21c Nr. 176 Willy Davidsohn, 1937 Sta Nr. 213 Käthchen Sekkel; StaH, 351-11 Amt für Wiedergutmachung, 987 Richard Sachs, 13560 Dr. Friedrich Lührse, 25771 Heinz Sachs, 46648 Hans Günther Arensberg, 47724 Marie Wilhelm Sekkel; StaH, 352-10 Personalakten, 272 Dr. Friedrich Lührse; StaH, 376-2 Gewerbepolizei, Spz VIII, C 53; StaH, 376-2, Gewerbeanmeldung Akte J Nr. 2779/23. III, K 3834; 16121/1923; StaH, 522-1 Jüdische Gemeinden, 903 Kriegsteilnehmerstatistik; StaH, 741-4, Sa 1227; StaH, 741-4 Fotoarchiv, K 245, K 3834, K 6846, K 7427, Sa 1228, S 12285; Standesamt Berlin-Schöneberg, Heiratsregister, 25/1920 Emil Arensberg/Marie Matzdorff; Standesamt Bromberg, Geburtsregister, 171/1890 Willi Davidsohn, 907/1891 Friederike Davidsohn; Standesamt Bromberg, Heiratsregister, 236/1879 Adeline Davidsohn/Adolph Gollubier, 107/1881 Max Davidsohn/Emma Mattson, 160/1885 Daniel Arensberg/Clara Davidsohn, 293/1890 Leo Levy Lührse/Nanny Davidsohn; Standesamt Bromberg, Sterberegister, 1890 Fritze Davidsohn; Standesamt Breslau, Heiratsregister, 1889 Moritz Davidsohn/Margarethe Sachs; Standesamt Stettin I, Geburtsregister, 4074/1891 Friedrich Lührse; Standesamt Stettin I, Heiratsregister, 981/1901 981/1904 Eugen Sachs/Bertha Arensberg, 981/1904; Standesamt Stettin I, Sterberegister, 2033/1894 Simon Davidsohn, 2498/1902 Daniel Arensberg; Archiv Friedhof Ohlsdorf, Beerdigungsregister, Feuerbestattungen, Nr. 441/1928 Moritz Davidsohn, Nr. 702/1932 Willy Davidsohn, Grabbrief Nr. 123149/1928; Hamburger Adressbücher 1887–1943; Datenbankprojekt des Eduard-Duckesz-Fellow und der Hamburger Gesellschaft für jüdische Genealogie, Ohlsdorf, 1931–1939, M 2-25, http://jü, eingesehen am: 15.2.2022; Institut Theresienstädter Initiative, Nationalarchiv Prag, Jüdische Matrikeln, Todesfallanzeigen, 329551 Davidsohn Margarete; Auskünfte Direktor Mgr Eugeniusz Borodij, Archiwum Panstwowe w Bydgoszczy, z 1885 roku na nazwiska Daniel Ahrenberg i Clara Davidsohn, z 1890 roku na nazwiska Leo Levy i Nanny Davidsohn, Gmina Mojz.Bydgoszcz, Archiveinheit Sig. 6/378/0/-/4, Nr. 293; Bromberg, Jüdische Gemeinde, Geburtsregister, Nr. 363/1853 Max Davidsohn, Nr. 798/1858 Cäcilie Davidsohn, Nr. 936/1860 Moritz Davidsohn, Nr. 1063/1862 Albert Davidsohn, Archiveinheit Sig. 6/378/0/-/5, Nr. 104, Bromberg, Jüdische Gemeinde, Heiratsregister, Nr. 104/1857 Simon Davidsohn/Fritze Nast; Auskünfte Dr. Ute Haug, Provenienzforschung, Archiv Hamburger Kunsthalle; Auskünfte Dr. Rüdiger Joppien, Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe, Foto Büste Willy Davidson; Auskünfte Dr. Natalia Kardinar, Hochschularchiv und Kustodie, Dresdener Hochschule für bildende Künste; Auskünfte Frau Lehnert, Deutsche Dienststelle (WASt), Berlin, Unterlagen vom Landesamt für Gesundheit und Soziales Berlin, Abteilung IV/Ref. Krankenbuchlager; Auskünfte Susanne Sywzyk, Standesamt Blomberg, Nr. 41/1881, Nr. 43/1889, Nr. 46/1892 u. Stadtarchiv Blomberg, Neues Archiv III/D II 1; Jochen Düllmann: Privatsammlung Willy Davidson; Adressbuch Hamburg 1888–1943; Archiv Hamburger Kunst, Bruhns Archiv (Warburg-Haus); Daniel Bohé: FC St. Pauli zur Zeit der NS-Diktatur, Norderstedt 2009, S. 9–14; Maike Bruhns: Kunst in der Krise, 2 Bde., Bd. 1: Hamburger Kunst im "Dritten Reich", Bd. 2: Künstlerlexikon Hamburg 1933–1945, Hamburg 2001; Melissa Gaal: The Family of Flocking Birds. Based on a True Story, North Virginia 2020; Das jüdische Hamburg. Ein historisches Nachschlagewerk, hrsg. vom Institut für die Geschichte der Deutschen Juden, Red.: Kirsten Heinsohn, Göttingen 2006, S. 53 f.; Hans Leipelt: Hamburger Künstler und ihre Werkstätten, in: Neue Hamburger Zeitung, 13.7.1918, Nr. 354, Abendausgabe; Friederike Weimar: Davidson [Davidsohn], Willy, in: Hamburgische Biografie. Personenlexikon, hrsg. von Franklin Kopitzsch/Dirk Brietzke, Göttingen 2006, Bd. 3, S. 89 f.; Friederike Weimar: Die Hamburgische Sezession 1919–1933. Geschichte und Künstlerlexikon, Fischerhude 2003, S. 45, 47, 82 f.; Adressbuch Stockholm 1920, 1924, online eingesehen am: 17.2.2012; Geburts-, Heirats-, und Sterberegister Bromberg,, eingesehen am: 30.3.2022. Herzlichen Dank Ronald und William Sekkel sowie an Marianne Davidson!
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