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Rosa Weinberg (née Nathan) * 1877

Großneumarkt 56 (Hamburg-Mitte, Neustadt)

1941 Riga

further stumbling stones in Großneumarkt 56:
Sella Cohen, Bertha Cohen, A(h)ron Albert Cohn, Thekla Daltrop, David Elias, Theresia Elias, Louisa(e) Elias, Helene Martha Fernich, Martha Minna Fernich, Camilla Fuchs, Siegmund Josephi, Robert Martin Levy, Hertha Liebermann, Fritz Mainzer, Elsa Nathan, Ruth Nathan, Siegfried Neumann, Fanny Neumann, Lieselotte Neumann, Mirjam Neumann, Max Leo Neumann, Therese Neumann, Bela Neumann, Josef Polack, Bertha Polack, Eva Samuel, Rosa Therese Weil, Bernhard Weil, Siegfried Weinberg

Rosa Weinberg, née Nathan, b. 10.3.1877 in Flensburg, deported to Riga-Jungfernhof on 12.6.1941
Siegfried Weinberg, b. 8.22.1875 in Hamburg, deported to Riga-Jungfernhof on 12.6.1941

Großneumarkt 56

Rosa Nathan and Siegfried Weinberg married in Hamburg on 8 February 1902. At the time of his marriage, Siegfried lived in Bremen at Oelmühlenstrasse 21 and worked as a business manager. Rosa lived with her parents at Hansaplatz 2 in the St. Georg district of Hamburg.

Rosa’s father, the businessman Eduard Wolff Nathan (b. 4.8.1846, d. 5.30.1930) came from a Jewish family in Rendsburg. Her mother, Sophia Dorothea Mathilde Antoinette, née Spöring (b. 10.10.1853, d. 3.23.1943), was not Jewish and technically also came from Schleswig-Holstein, because her birthplace Altona did not yet belong to Hamburg. When Eduard Wolff Nathan and Sophie Spöring married in the registry office on 20 December 1876, their daughter Elisabeth Henriette (b. 11.18.1873) had already been born. After the birth of Rosa on 3 October 1877 in Flensburg, there followed eight further children, three sons and five daughters. All of whom were born in Bremen. Eduard Wolff Nathan was, since 1897, the owner of the firm "Sams. Sachs,” an on installment business dealing in furniture, which was founded in 1871 by Samson Sachs at Wexstrasse 39. The main store was located at Steindamm 43, another at Schulterblatt (Strasse) in Altona. There were branches in Dresden, Hanover, and Bremen.

Rosa followed her husband to Bremen. Their children were also born there: Elsa on 29 December 1902 and Herbert/Herz on 19 January 1904. The Bremen directory for 1904 registered Siegfried Weinberg at Knoopstrasse 42. He perhaps worked at his father-in-law’s shop at Hutfilterstrasse 23. In 1910, for economic reasons, the Bremen shop was given up. Since April 1909, Siegfried was a member of the Hamburg Jewish Congregation; he paid his first Communal Religion Tax in 1913. According to the entries in the Hamburg directories, Siegfried Weinberg continued working as a "business manager.”

Siegfried Weinberg volunteered in the First World War and fought in the Ukraine on the Eastern Front. In 1918, he was demobilized and distinguished for his service with the Hanseatic Cross and the Honor Cross of Frontline Fighters. His younger brother Bernhard Weinberg (b. 4.9.1883) was killed in the war on 31 August 1918.

In the following year, on 12 October 1919, Siegfried’s mother Rosalie Weinberg, née Schoeneberg (b. 3.5.1848) died; she had run a "lottery and advertising office” at Bartelsstrasse 95. At 71 years of age, Rosalie Weinberg was buried next to her husband Hermann/Herz Weinberg (b. 4.18.1845, d. 2.9.1895) in the Ilandkoppel Jewish Cemetery in Ohlsdorf.

On 6 August 1926, Rosa’s and Siegfried’s daughter Else married the Kiel sales representative, Iwan Jacobsohn (b. 7.20.1899); their grandson Rolf was born on 28 December 1926. The Jacobsohn family moved to Hansastrasse 47 in the Harvestehude district. Elsa’s brother, still a bachelor, lived with his parents at Bartelsstrasse 88; he had received commercial training. Only 25 years old, Herbert died of tuberculosis on 21 March 1929. On 30 May 1930, Elsa’s father Eduard Wolff Nathan also died.

His firm, Sams. Sachs, was taken over by his second oldest son, Julius Nathan (b. 4.2.1884). The oldest, Iwan Nathan (b. 2.2.1882) had emigrated to America in 1912. Contact with him was broken off in 1924. Julius was supported in the business by his younger brother Norbert (b. 6.17.1890, d. 3.4.1952). The business premises were not located at Hammerbrookstrasse 22, where Julius also lived with his family. Julius had married Clara Mendel (b. 7.9.1887) on 8 December 1920 (see the entries for her sisters Minna Heilbut and Gertha Seligsohn). Their son Henry was born on 30 May 1924.

In 1937, Rosa and Siegfried Weinberg moved to Eimsbüttel, on the third floor at Weidenstieg 14. Siegfried Weinberg now worked as an independent sales representative. In the following years, the couple could no longer maintain a secure living and was dependent on aid from the Jewish Congregation.

Rosa’s brother Julius was not able to support his sister. The basis for making a living was withdrawn from him by Nazi officials. Just like all the other Jewish owners of firms, he was compelled to give up his business. The furniture dealership, Sams. Sachs, was liquidated in November 1938; its warehouse was taken over by a furniture dealer at a price far under its value. Still in October 1939, the devolution of the enterprise was not yet ended; five "cashiers” were occupied with collecting the accounts receivable from more than 1000 debtors.

According to the liquidation balance sheet, after citizens’ taxes, "he asset levy on Jews,” and honorariums, the firm’s assets were deposited in a blocked account. Julius Nathan could no longer freely dispose of his wealth. After being released from the Buchenwald concentration camp, his brothe Norbert had, in May 1939, succeeded in emigrating to Shanghai. On 31 January 1939, Rosa and Siegfried Weinberg were housed across from Rappstrasse 16 in the Hertz-Joseph-Levy Foundation at Grossneumarkt 56. In the immediate neighborhood, in the Lazarus Gumpel Foundation at Schlachterstrasse 46-47, lived Siegfried’s sister Frieda Dannenberg (see the biographical entry for her). Both establishments ultimately were under Gestapo surveillance and were used as "Jew houses” in preparation for deportation. Since 1 January 1939, the Weinbergs had to take the compulsory names of "Israel” and Sara.”

On the evening of 5 January 1941, Rosa Weinberg and her older sister Henriette Stöhlker, née Nathan, together with her sister-in-law Clara Nathan, the wife of her brother Julius, were stopped on a darkened street in Grindelallee by a motorized policeman, because they had allegedly blinded him with a flashlight.

Because at the taking down of their particulars they did not give the compulsory name "Sara,” and thereby immediately acknowledge that they were Jewesses, they were, in an express proceeding on 2 April 1941, sentenced to two weeks in jail and had to bear the costs of the trial. In the trial opinion it was stated that, as Jewess subjects of the German State, they were legally obligated to use the additional first name of Sara that they had apparently deliberately attempted to evade this duty. Their objection that they had been so frightened that they had forgotten to use the name Sara was found invalid by District Court Councilor Bayer. In a mercy plea, the attorney Edgar Fels (b. 9.20.1885, d. 5.22.1942 in Lodz), who could only act as a "Jewish consultant” in the legal matters of his Jewish clients, the jail sentence was converted into a fine.

On 9 April 1941, seven days after the court proceedings, Iwan Jacobsohn, Rosa and Siegfried’s son-in-law, died of a cardiac rupture (the cause was not explained in more detail). At this point in time, Else and Iwan had already been compelled to give up their apartment at Hansastrasse 47 and were living in a "Jew house” at Rutschbahn 15.

Else Jacobsohn, her son Rolf, and the family of her uncle, Julius Nathan, had to answer their deportation order on 25 October 1941. They were deported to the Lodz (Litzmannstadt) ghetto.

Siegfried and Rosa Weinberg received their deportation orders only a bit later, and were supposed to be deported to Riga on 6 December 1941. However, because the SS murder operation against the Latvian ghetto dwellers and an already started Berlin transport had not yet been completed, the Hamburg transport was temporarily brought to the Jungfernhof estate outside of Riga, whereupon all trace of the Weinbergs was lost.

Commemorative stones for the couple stand today at Grossneumarkt 56 in front of the former Jewish Hertz-Joseph-Levy Foundation, from which they were deported. However, the center of their lives for many years lay at Bartelsstrasse 88, in a good middle-class furnished three-room apartment in the St. Pauli quarter.

After their deportation, the Carl F. Schlüter auction house, at Alsterufer 12, received the commission for "the voluntary auctioning of the furnishings of the Weinbergs, resident in Hamburg, for the benefit of the German Reich.” It obtained the sum of RM 320.35, which was deposited in the treasury of the Office of the Chief Financial Governor. Objects of value, such as gold and silver items, the couple had sold off before having to surrender them to state offices.

On 15 May 1942, their daughter Else and grandson Rolf Jacobsohn were sent on from the Lodz (Litzmannstadt) ghetto to the some 37-mile distant Chelmno (Kulmhof) extermination camp and murdered in a gas van. A brother-in-law deposited a memorial page at the Yad Vashem place of remembrance. In Hamburg, memorial stones at Hansastrasse 47 recall them.

Rosa’s brother Julius Nathan died on 21 May 1944 in the infirmary of the Lodz ghetto; he was buried in the Jewish cemetery there.

His sister Clara suffered the same fate as her niece Else: seriously ill with dysentery, she was sent on 23 June 1944 to the Chelmno (Kulmhof) extermination camp.

Her son Henry, who worked in an army facility, was sent, without being able to say good-bye to his parents, on a transport to Posen-Semsen, where he was assigned to railroad work. From there, he was brought to Auschwitz; in the Selection, having been declared capable of labor, he had to work in a coalmine. Henry Nathan was liberated in the Theresienstadt ghetto on 30 April 1945. Via Czernowitz and Prague, he returned to Hamburg and then, later, went to the USA.

He placed commemorative stones for his parents, Clara and Julius Nathan, at Hammerbrookstrasse 22 (see Stolpersteine in Hamburg-St. Georg).

Rosa’s sister Henriette Stöhlker, a widow since 1914, obtained acceptance as a "Mischling [half-breed] of the first degree,” because her mother was not Jewish and because Henriette had married the non-Jewish Hermann Wilhelm Stöhlker. She died on 1 October 1945 in Hamburg.

However, on 8 November 1941, her daughter Irma Oppenheim, née Stöhlker (b. 8.12.1903), with her husband Friedrich/Fritz Oppenheim (b. 9.1.1896) and son Hermann (b. 11.26.1927), were deported to the Minsk ghetto, where they perished (see biographical entry for Edith Sandner). Her son Adolf Nathan (b. 11.22.1896 in Bremen), seriously wounded in World War I, survived the time of persecution.

Siegfried Weinberg’s widowed sisters, Frieda Dannenberg and Dina Adloff (b. 6.11.188; see Stolpersteine in Hamburg-Eimsbüttel und Hamburg-Hoheluft-West), were deported to the Minsk ghetto on 18 November 1941.

Another sister, Paula Lenz (b. 6.24.1886, d. 12.25.1969) survived the Nazi regime, protected by a "mixed marriage.”

Translator: Richard Levy
Kindly supported by the Hermann Reemtsma Stiftung, Hamburg.

Stand: June 2020
© Susanne Rosendahl

Quellen: 1; 4; 5; 8; StaH 351-11 AfW 2852 (Weinberg, Siegfried); StaH 351-11 AfW 1312 (Jacobsohn, Martha); StaH 351-11 AfW 7169 (Nathan, Bertha); StaH 351-11 AfW 18076 (Oppenheim, Friedrich); StaH 332-5 Standesämter 8588 u 650/1874; StaH 332-5 Standesämter 2563 u 1721/1876; StaH 332-5 Standesämter 1932 u 2730/1878; StaH 332-5 Standesämter 2053 u 1748/1884; StaH 332-5 Standesämter 2129 u 3130/1886; StaH 332-5 Standesämter 2405 u 3008/1886; StaH 332-5 Standesämter 2977 u 54/1902; StaH 332-5 Standesämter 5330 u 2614/1918; StaH 332-5 Standesämter 810 u 621/1919; StaH 332-5 Standesämter 3387 u 901/1920; StaH 332-5 Standesämter 3533 u 473/1926; StaH 332-5 Standesämter 8174 u 131/1941; StaH 332-5 Standesämter 9960 u 1890/1945; StaH 352-5 Todesbescheinigung 1929, Sta 3 Nr. 814; StaH 213-11 Amtsgericht Hamburg 4410/41; StaH 522 -1 Jüdische Gemeinden 477; StaH 522-1 Jüdische Gemeinde Nr. 992 e 2 Band 1; StaH 522-1 Jüdische Gemeinde Nr. 992 e 2 Band 2; StaH 522-1 Jüdische Gemeinde Nr. 992 e 2 Band 3; Yad Vashem, Zentrale Datenbank der Namen der Holocaustopfer Iwan Jacobsohn (Gedenkblatt); Riegel: Leidensweg, S. 66, S. 77; Behrens: Stolpersteine, S. 143; Auskunft von Fritz Neubauer, Universität Bielefeld, E-Mail vom 16.4.2014 und 18.4.2014; (Zugriff 4.10.2016).
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