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Walter Rudolphi * 1880
Sievekingplatz 1 Ziviljustizgebäude (Hamburg-Mitte, Neustadt)
DR. WALTER RUDOLPHI
further stumbling stones in Sievekingplatz 1 Ziviljustizgebäude:
Heinrich Basch, Paul Blumenthal, Franz Daus, Hermann Feiner, Richard Hoffmann, Kurt (Curt) Ledien, Lambert Leopold, Wilhelm Prochownick, Alfred Rinteln, Anna Rosenberg, Leonhard Stein
Dr. Walter Rudolphi, born on 27 May 1880 in Hamburg, deported on 15 July 1942 to Theresienstadt, deported further on 23 Oct. 1944 to Auschwitz, murdered there on 30 Oct. 1944
Pfingstberg 6 (Hochallee 6)
Walter Julius Aloys Rudolphi was born in 1880 at Schweinemarkt 47 b, the street running parallel to and east of Lange Mühren in Hamburg-Altstadt. After 1887, the family had to move from there because the residential buildings were torn down to make room for construction of the new Museum of Natural History. Currently (in 2010), this location accommodates an electronics store. Walter Rudolphi was born into a Jewish family in which education played an important role. The father, Moritz Rudolphi (born in 1835 in Schwerin, died in 1906), had obtained Hamburg civic rights in 1860, and by 1870 at the latest, he operated a second-hand bookstore and a lending library at Adolphsbrücke 1 in Hamburg-Altstadt. Even before 1896, he withdrew from the business, which was subsequently managed by a new owner until 1899 under the name of "Rudolphi’sche Buchhandlung.” The mother, Fanny, née Meisel (1852–1904), was a native of Stettin (today Szczecin in Poland). From 1890 until 1906, the family lived at Heimhuderstrasse 3 in the Rotherbaum quarter, where middle-class town houses were built following development in the 1880s.
The necessary funds were available to send Walter Rudolphi to the private pre-school run by Adolph Thomsen at Grosse Drehbahn 44 (Hamburg-Neustadt) from 1887 until 1890, subsequently enabling him to attend the renowned Wilhelm-Gymnasium, a high school located in Hamburg-Rotherbaum. In Mar. 1899, Walter Rudolphi graduated from high school by passing his final exams (Abitur). That same year, he began law studies, which he pursued at the universities of Heidelberg, Munich, Berlin, and Kiel. In addition to attending lectures on law, he also acquired interdisciplinary knowledge in economics, psychology, philosophy, and German literature. He also went to lectures on special fields of law, such as law on bills of exchange, bankruptcy law, maritime law, administrative law, ecclesiastical law, and international law. In Munich, he studied together with Leo Lippmann (1881–1943), a graduate of the Johanneum high school and subsequent Hamburg Councilor of State, as well as with students from the Wilhelm-Gymnasium of the same age, Franz Goldmann, who later became a judge and President of the Hamburg Senate, and the future lawyers Max (?) Hoeck and James Kauffmann (1880–1967). In 1902, Walter Rudolphi obtained his doctorate of law at the University of Rostock, submitting a thesis on the topic of "Speculation on differences” (Das Differenzgeschäft) and receiving a grade of "cum laude.” He was not called up for military service due to an asthma condition; even during school he had been exempted from physical education for this reason.
In order to be able to fill the office of judge that he strove for in his hometown of Hamburg, he had to complete several stations and promotions within the Hamburg judicial system: In 1902, as a legal trainee; in 1907, as an assistant judge (Assessor); and in 1910, as a district court judge (Amtsrichter) in the area of civil justice and land office in Hamburg.
In 1906, after his father’s death, Walter Rudolphi decided, not least because of his asthma condition, to relocate his residence from Hamburg-Rotherbaum to the city of Bergedorf, located southeast of Hamburg and still independent at the time.
The railway connection to Hamburg made Bergedorf increasingly interesting as a place of domicile for Hamburg residents as well. Walter Rudolphi moved to Lamprechtstrasse 5 and had a phone line installed there. In 1910, he relocated within Bergedorf to Blücherstrasse 10 (today Von-Anckeln-Strasse), where he remained for only one year, however, before finding his final domicile at Hochallee 6 (today Pfingstberg 6). Since 1907, the jurist James Kauffmann operated a joint law firm with the notary Wilhelm Grethe in Bergedorf at Ernst-Mantius-Strasse 1 and later at Vierlandenstrasse 6; Walter Rudolphi knew the former from his high school days and law studies; with the latter, he subsequently purchased a piece of real estate.
Due to his relocation of residence, Walter Rudolphi strove toward obtaining a position in Bergedorf, working there as a judge at the District Court from 1917 until 1925. In Aug. 1916, he had been examined by a military medical officer. The foreseeable result, "permanently unfit for active service but found fit for work duty in his profession,” left two options: Either serving as a work soldier within the untrained Landsturm I (the territorial reserve) or continuing to practice his legal profession. However, for the second option, the employer had to file an application that Rudolphi be declared "indispensable” ("unabkömmlich”). The justice administration made efforts to keep Walter Rudolphi in the judicial service, especially because the district court judges at the Bergedorf District Court, Seebohm and Mantius, had already been drafted into military service, thus causing a shortage of personnel. In Oct. 1917, Walter Rudolphi was also elected "first deputy to the chairman of the rent arbitration commission” in Bergedorf in accordance with the resolution of the Bergedorf City Council. Like all judges holding office in the German Empire, Walter Rudolphi, too, was confirmed in his position by the justice system of the Weimar Republic.
The period of 1918/19 entailed radical changes for society and the justice system: Military defeat, demobilization, unfavorable peace terms, political polarization, and unemployment created an atmosphere of insecurity and social crisis. In spite of these circumstances, Walter Rudolphi had a successful career: In 1925, he was promoted to senior district court judge (Oberamtsrichter) in Bergedorf. One year later, he was already a judge at the Higher Regional Court at the Criminal Senate of the Hanseatic Higher Regional Court, whose jurisdiction covered cases of treason and high treason. In addition, since 1923, he was a member of the arbitration committee of the employment authority. In 1927, he also served as deputy chairman of the Regional Labor Court (Landesarbeitsgericht) and as the head of the rent arbitration board and of the lease settlement office for the City of Bergedorf.
Three days before Christmas Eve of 1912, the 32-year-old District Court judge Walter Rudolphi married Erna Cramer, a Catholic woman from Bavaria. Walter Rudolphi’s membership in the Hamburg German-Israelitic Community is documented since 1913. The only child, daughter Felicitas, was born on 12 Mar. 1918 in Bergedorf. Like her mother, she was baptized a Roman-Catholic. Starting at Easter of 1928 until completing grade 11 (Obersekunda) at Easter of 1935, she attended Luisenschule in Bergedorf, a scientifically oriented secondary school for girls, then the Reinhardswald-Schule in Kassel-Land, and from Easter of 1936 onward the Staatliche Schule für Frauenberufe ("State School for Women’s Occupations”) in Hamburg. Erna Rudolphi had passed away unexpectedly in May 1930, at the age of 45. She was buried in the Bergedorf cemetery.
The legal career of 52-year-old Walter Rudolphi ended abruptly with the Nazi "seizure of power.” Based on the "Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service” ("Gesetz zur Wiederherstellung des Berufsbeamtentums”) dated 7 Apr. 1933, the civil services law and the independence of judges were abolished. Non-Aryan civil servants were dismissed. On 5 Aug. 1933, Walter Rudolphi was informed of this by the Hamburg senator for the judiciary, the Nazi [Curt] Rothenberger – the letter included neither a salutation nor a complimentary close. Walter Rudolphi, who in Aug. 1933 spent his convalescent holidays in Marienbad (Czechoslovakia), asked for leave until his compulsory retirement on 1 Dec 1933, which was granted to him. Along with him, other judges were retired due to their Jewish descent: Judge Otto Arndt (President of the Senate at the Hanseatic Higher Regional Court [Hanseatisches Oberlandesgericht]), Hans Beit, Franz Daus (Regional Court [Landgericht]), Arthur Goldschmidt (Associate Judge at the Higher Regional Court [Oberlandesgerichtsrat]), Richard May (Associate Judge at the Higher Regional Court), and Dr. Leopold Schönfeld (Regional Court Director [Landgerichtsdirektor]). The Nazi laws banned the dismissed judges from any employment in the civil service, regardless of the field.
In Jan. 1937, Walter Rudolphi moved from Bergedorf (Hochallee 6) to Oderfelderstrasse 21 in Hamburg. The third floor of the house was occupied by Robert Hirsch (1863–1942), the former owner of a cane factory, and his wife Baszion Hirsch, née Fliess (1875–1942). In June 1942, they both moved to Agathenstrasse 3, where they committed joint suicide on 14 July 1942. From the second floor of the house at Oderfelder Strasse 21, Mary Fraenkel, née Rendsburg (1873–1944), was forcibly relocated to Hartungstrasse 8 on the third floor on 29 Oct. 1941 and deported from there to Theresienstadt on 19 July 1942. The second floor also accommodated Sophie Schwarz, née Verschleisser (1877–1944), a long-standing tenant who had rented out rooms; she was moved out on 30 Nov. 1941 and deported to Theresienstadt on 19 July 1942.
Until his deportation, Walter Rudolphi lived with his daughter and a housekeeper in a spacious apartment on the raised ground floor of the house at Oderfelderstrasse 21. The apartment had an oval music room featuring two grand pianos that Rudolphi and his daughter played. After the state-organized Pogrom of November 1938, Jewish public life had come to a complete standstill. Most organizations and newspapers were banned. Cultural performances could take place only at private residences. For instance, on several occasions Walter Rudolphi invited pianists to play for friends of the family. According to some of the guests, he himself was very musical and an excellent pianist. A widower by then, he met his future second wife, Gerda Adler, in the course of playing music. On the street, Walter Rudolphi would greet his daughter with a kiss on the hand, a sign of deep affection and of "old school” manners alike.
In Harvestehude, the attractive Felicitas Rudolphi (called "Fetas”) made friends with sons and daughters of well-to-do local merchants, bankers, and jurists of "Aryan descent.” In the sphere around tennis, hockey, and sailing clubs, a loose circle of friends had formed whose members oriented their lifestyle toward Britain, listening to swing music on the phonograph (which earned some of them prison terms) and not conforming to the norms prescribed by the Nazi state. They also did not take objection to Felicitas Rudolphi’s "half-Jewish” descent.
At the time of the pogroms throughout the German Reich on 9/10 Nov. 1938, Walter Rudolphi was spending time in Baden-Baden with his girlfriend Gerda Adler. They probably stayed there with friends or acquaintances, for by then Jews were already banned from frequenting seaside or health resorts. Walter Rudolphi was among some 70 persons arrested by the SS and police in Baden-Baden, subsequently being escorted in a humiliating march to the synagogue, where the SS was already wreaking havoc. After the Jews who were ill and older than 60 years of age had been let go, about 50 men were left to be taken to a concentration camp. Gerda Adler managed with the help of the Catholic Church, to which Walter Rudolphi’s daughter and deceased wife belonged after all, to have her companion released. Walter Rudolphi later remained silent about this first experience in detention. To the outside, one noticed little in him; there were no marks of serious mistreatment; only his coat was missing a button. For his distraught psychological state, the 58-year old found only three words, "It was dreadful.”
Nevertheless, he was prepared to take on offices in Hamburg that would inevitably bring him into contact with Nazi organizations. Following the reorganization of the Jewish Religious Organization (Jüdischer Religionsverband), as the Jewish Community had to call itself henceforth, ordered by the Nazis in 1939, Walter Rudolphi joined Max Plaut (1901–1974) and Leo Lippmann (1881–1943), as well as John Hausmann (emigrated in 1941) and Arthur Spier (1926–1940), the principal of the Talmud Tora School, in serving as an executive committee member of that organization. No longer independent either, it had become a branch of the "Reich Association of Jews in Germany” ("Reichsvereinigung der Juden in Deutschland”) as of July 1939. Walter Rudolphi acted as the person chiefly responsible for the areas of welfare and health affairs, which included public welfare (headed by Martha Samson), clothing store (honorary head Benno Hirschfeld), workshops, youth welfare (headed by Fanny David), soup kitchen (headed by Lotte Gurwitsch), and closed institutions (headed by Mr. or Mrs. Massé).
In this context, he was dependent on honorary helpers for individual sub-areas and institutions. For instance, he managed to win, among others, Franz Rappolt (1870–1943), the former co-owner of the renowned textiles company Rappolt & Söhne, as the person in charge of the previous Israelite Girls’ Orphanage Paulinenstift at Laufgraben 37, with Rappolt also taking care of the necessary but unpopular cutbacks to retirement homes. Benno Hirschfeld (1879–1945), whose well-known Gebrüder Hirschfeld (Hirschfeld Bros.) clothing store on Neuer Wall had been "Aryanized” in 1938/39, set up the clothing store for needy persons. Rappolt and Hirschfeld knew each other back from their time as owners of eminent Hamburg companies in the clothing sector. Iwan van der Walde, too, co-owner of a family business until its "Aryanization,” was reportedly involved in managing the Jewish orphanage.
For carrying out his responsibilities, Walter Rudolphi was allowed to continue using a small private car. Using that car, he and Gerda Adler went every night to take eye drops and food to Felix Schönfeld (1869–1942), Gerda Adler’s father, who was detained in the "Hütten” prison. Only after the "Aryanization” of the Benedict Schönfeld Company, which imported Mexican, South American, and East Asian regional products and exported all sorts of goods to these areas, was the former company owner released from prison.
The difficult position of the Jewish persons answerable vis-à-vis the Nazi state is illustrated by a note of the foreign currency office dated 22 Dec. 1939: "The Jewish Religious Organization and its institutions are kept under surveillance by the Gestapo and are answerable to it. The only persons to be appointed leaders are those deemed trustworthy by the Gestapo.” Conscientiously, Walter Rudolphi performed the duties transferred to him: "I do not intend to emigrate but to complete the tasks assigned to me.” Especially in the period between the November Pogrom of 1938 and the beginning of the deportations in late Oct. 1941, he was needed as a leading personality by the Community members and by the Nazi state.
He took on executive board positions in four Jewish charitable residential homes as well as at the Israelite Hospital; from the District Court the co-guardianship in financial matters for Lotte Haas in July 1940; in 1941, at the request of Franz Rappolt, he was to assume the guardianship for the latter’s incapacitated son, Fritz, if the father succeeded in emigrating; and in Sept. 1941, he was appointed, together with Rudolf Herms, the former owner of the Jonas & Söhne banking house (at Neuer Wall 26/28), as a testator for Paul Salomon and Lucie Salomon, née Königswerther, who had committed joint suicide (biography at www.stolpersteine-hamburg.de).
At the end of Apr. 1939, Walter Rudolphi had to comply with a "summons” of the foreign currency office and provide Tax Inspector Willers with definitive information about his financial circumstances. Despite substantial assets, as late as Dec. 1939 the authorities abstained from issuing a "security order” ("Sicherungsanordnung”). In order to rescue his assets at least partially from the clutches of the Nazis, he had his 50-percent share in a Barmbek apartment building (at Stuvkamp 14) signed over by a notary to his daughter Felicitas on 2 Jan. 1940 – the house was destroyed by bombs in 1943. The remaining 50 percent belonged to the notary Wilhelm Grethe, who operated a law firm with James Kauffmann (formerly Cohn) at Vierlandenstrasse 6 in Bergedorf.
Felicitas Rudolphi had to report to the Gestapo three times for interrogations; since 1939, she was compelled to perform driving duties in emergency and evacuation operations for Jews. She had to drive patients and suicide victims to the Israelite Hospital on Johnsallee and starting in 1941, she also had to transport "pieces of equipment” to the deportation trains. In this connection, she sustained myocardial lesions according to a medical certificate.
On 2 July 1942, Walter Rudolphi was arrested and taken to the Fuhlsbüttel police prison. Eleven years later, Max Plaut remembered the fabricated pretext for the arrest: As the chairman of the hospital administration, Rudolphi was accused of sabotage since the Israelite Hospital had bought a box of cauliflower from a greengrocer.
By this time, the duties of the Jewish Religious Organization, incorporated into the Reich Association [of Jews in Germany] in 1942, were largely completed from the perspective of the Nazi rulers. The implementation of the deportations to Eastern Europe passed off smoothly. In this situation, the representatives of the Community were threatened by deportation as well. The head of the "Jewish Affairs Department” ("Judenreferent”), Claus Göttsche from the Hamburg Gestapo, decided on their subsequent fate. On 10 July 1942, Walter Rudolphi was temporarily released from detention. Just one day before his ordered deportation, on 14 July 1942, 62-year-old Walter Rudolphi married Gerda Adler, née Schönfeld (born in 1903), who was 23 years his junior, in a civil ceremony. A senior Gestapo officer had coerced Walter Rudolphi’s long-standing piano partner into the marriage by saying that only marriage would be able to prevent Walter Rudolphi’s deportation to Auschwitz.
Gerda Adler came from a well-to-do Jewish family. Her father, Felix M. Schönfeld (Benedict Schönfeld & Co. GmbH import and export firm, founded in 1872), had the financial means to have her trained as a pianist by Ilse Fromm-Michels in Hamburg and Ursula Huber in Oker/Harz Mountains. After the death of her husband, Max Adler (1884–1929), she lived with her daughter Renate (born in 1925) in a spacious apartment at Loehrsweg 1 in Eppendorf. She was forced to vacate the apartment for an SS man at the end of Mar. 1942. At Heimhuderstrasse 70 (in Rotherbaum), she and her daughter were assigned a room in the Jewish community center. They shared a kitchen with one other family. Non-Jewish visitors were prohibited in the house since it was a building owned by the Jewish Community, which was now included in the deportation plans as a "Jews’ house” ("Judenhaus”). The forced auctioning of her furniture and valuable household goods (among other things, a Bechstein concert grand) from the apartment on Loehrsweg was carried out on behalf of the state by Adolph L. Elsas auctioneers, yielding proceeds of 3,500 RM.
On 15 July 1942, the newlywed Rudolphi couple was deported to the Theresienstadt Ghetto. The parents-in-law, the Schönfelds, Felix Schönfeld (1869–1942) and Anni Schönfeld, née Falk (1875–1943), as well as Felix’ sister Franziska Corten, née Schönfeld (1864–1943), and her daughter Rosa Corten (1886–1943) appeared on this deportation list as well. The passenger train used for the deportation traveled without a stop. In the Theresienstadt Ghetto, the Rudolphi couple received a place to sleep in a small anteroom. All rooms were hopelessly overcrowded. They were both assigned to work at the Magdeburger Kaserne, a military barracks.
The Hamburg apartment and the room of the Rudolphi couple were sealed and the remaining household effects auctioned off. Two and a half months after the deportation, the Hanseatic Higher Regional Court inquired with the Hamburg Secret State Police (Gestapo) "whether and when the retired Associate Judge at the Higher Regional Court Walter Israel Rudolphi (…) has been evacuated." After the Gestapo had conveyed the deportation date, the higher justice treasury (Oberjustizkasse) stopped the pension payments and noted, "His assets have been confiscated to the benefit of the German Reich.” Felicitas Rudolphi had to leave the apartment and on 13 Aug. 1942, she married the technician Hasso Ettler, whom she knew from the sailing cruises of the Harvestehude circle of friends. He, too, was a child from a "privileged mixed marriage” ("privilegierte Mischehe”). Thirteen months afterward, the companionate marriage, as a female relative called it later, was divorced. Felicitas Rudolphi relocated to Colonnaden 5, moving in with the cousin of her stepmother, Martin Heinrich Corten, the head of the Israelite Hospital and from 1943 onward "liaison officer” ("Vertrauensmann”) of the rump Reich Association of Jews in Germany.
Until her liberation, Gerda Rudolphi was detained for nearly three years in the Theresienstadt Ghetto, in the Auschwitz and Bergen-Belsen concentration camps, as well as in an ammunitions plant in Salzwedel, a subcamp of the Neuengamme concentration camp. Walter Rudolphi had been deported together with his wife to the Auschwitz II concentration camp on 23 Oct. 1944. Cattle cars were used for the transport. There was no food during the long journey. In Auschwitz-Birkenau, the tracks ran though the gatehouse and between the barracks to the gas chambers and the crematorium furnaces. The doors of the cattle cars were torn open and the prisoners driven in great haste to the "selection.” The camp physician and SS Hauptsturmführer [a rank equivalent to captain] Josef Mengele was one of the two doctors dividing prisoners into those fit for work and those to be killed immediately.
Gerda Rudolphi was put in the group of the younger prisoners able to work. In this or a subsequent "selection,” Walter Rudolphi was assigned to the group of death candidates. On 30 Oct. 1944, he was murdered using gas. From afar, his wife saw how Walter Rudolphi, weak and dazed, was supported arm in arm by Ernst Haas (probably the Hamburg export and import merchant Ernst Haas, born on 8 June 1883 in Hamburg, deported on 19 July 1942 to Theresienstadt, deported further in Oct. 1944 to Auschwitz) and Herbert Kauffman. Together the three went into the changing room and the gas chamber concealed as a shower room.
Gerda Rudolphi returned to Hamburg on 13 June 1945, with her health severely impaired. At the time of her liberation, she weighed only 40 kilograms (slightly more than 88 lbs). Her future husband, Heinz Rodewaldt, retorted in a letter to the Restitution Office (Amt für Wiedergutmachung) to that agency’s constant doubting and relativizations, "What do you know of the nights in frenzied fear, when my wife screams, thinking herself chased by the Gestapo and SS and being raped again! – What to you know about the amount of energy it takes for her every day and again and again to keep up appearances to her environment in the way she does!”
Through the mistreatments, she had been inflicted injuries to her head and jawbone, a molar had been knocked out, and there were injuries in the area of her kidneys and a torn muscle in her buttocks. She was also subjected to experiments in blinding her eyes. In the winter of 1944/45, she had been forced to stand outdoors only lightly dressed in freezing temperatures during roll calls, sustaining frostbite to her left hand. She was raped and subjected to experiments during which her intestines were pumped full with hot water. "Several of her fellow female sufferers perished under terrible agonies,” wrote her husband.
A medical expert’s report by the Langenhorn General Hospital dating from 1951 tried to demonstrate the psychological effects: "In retrospect, one can probably attribute to a strong will to live, supported by strong personal discipline, the fact that she not only came through this time but today leads a socially well-ordered life, both physically and as a human being. However, one must not overlook that in sum the numerous established remaining conditions (see description of results) not only constitute a physical disability but that these three years with their nervous/mental strain (constant fear of corporal punishment, hunger, gassing of her husband in front of her eyes, rape) led to a change of the overall personality that is irreversible and eludes categorization according to our common clinical/diagnostic terms.”
Walter Rudolphi’s daughter Felicitas lived in Hamburg until 1956, temporarily dependent on support, and from 1948 onward, she worked as a receptionist for the physician Martin Heinrich Corten. She passed away in Munich in 1962 at the age of 43.
Two Stolpersteine commemorate Felix M. Schönfeld and Anni Schönfeld, née Falk, (Gerda’s parents) at Gustav-Leo-Strasse 4 in Eppendorf.
Since 1995, a street in Allermöhe/Billwerder, Walter-Rudolphi-Weg, commemorates the judge and representative of the Jewish Community.
Translator: Erwin Fink
Kindly supported by the Hermann Reemtsma Stiftung, Hamburg.
Stand: October 2018
© Björn Eggert
Quellen: 1; 4; 5; StaH, 241-1 I (Justizverw. I), 1645 (1933); StaH 241-2 (Justizverw., Personalakten), A 1188 (1902–1969); StaH 314-15 (OFP), R 1939/2530; StaH 331-1 II (Polizeibehörde II), Abl. 15 v. 18.9.1984, Band 2 ("Schutzhaft"); StaH, 332-5 (Standesämter), 1967 u. 1/2359 (Geburt Rudolphi, 1880); StaH 332-8 (Alte Einwohnermeldekartei 1892–1925); StaH 351-11 (AfW), 4681 (Walter Rudolphi); StaH 351-11 (AfW), 120318 (Felicitas Rudolphi); StaH 351-11 (AfW), 141203 (Gerda Rodewaldt verw. Rudolphi); StaH, 356-1 (Demobilmachungskommissar, 1923), Signatur 19, Band 30 (Rudolphi); StaH (Lesesaal), Bürger-Register 1845–1875, L-R (Moritz Israel Rudolphi); FZH/WdE 177; FZH/WdE 190; Stiftung Warburg Archiv (SWA), Akte "Warburg Sekretariat Hamburg, 1941" (Robert Solmitz an Fritz Warburg, 16.4.1941); Universitätsarchiv Rostock, handgeschriebener Lebenslauf von 1901; Erzbistum Hamburg, Diözesanarchiv, E-Mail vom 26.6.2009 (Erna Rudolphi, geb. Cramer); Kultur- & Geschichtskontor der Initiative zur Erhaltung historischer Bauten e.V./Bergedorf, 2010 (Straßenumbenennungen); Briefe von Franz Rappolt an seinen Sohn Ernst Rappolt in den USA, 1940–1941, Privatbesitz; AB 1870, 1882, 1885, 1887, 1890, 1896 (Moritz Rudolphi); TB 1906, 1907, 1910–1912, 1914, 1920, 1930, 1933–1941; Hamburgisches Staatshandbuch 1903, 1905, 1910, 1914, 1921, 1925; Gräberkartei Jüdischer Friedhof Ohlsdorf; Leo Lippmann, Mein Leben und meine amtliche Tätigkeit (hrsg. von Werner Jochmann), Hamburg 1964, S. 55 (Studium Uni München); Heiko Morisse, Jüdische Rechtsanwälte in Hamburg. Ausgrenzung und Verfolgung im NS-Staat, Hamburg 2003, S. 139 (Kauffmann); Curt Rothenberger (NS-Justizsenator), Das Hanseatische Oberlandesgericht, Hamburg 1939, S. 318; Ursel Hochmuth/Gertrud Meyer, Streiflichter aus dem Hamburger Widerstand 1933–1945, Frankfurt/Main 1969, S. 205, 230; Wilhelm Mosel, Wegweiser zu ehemaligen jüdischen Staetten in Hamburg, Heft 1, Hamburg 1983, S. 74/75 (m. Abb.), Heft 2, Hamburg 1985, S. 15, 53, Heft 3, Hamburg 1989, S. 42, 126; E. G. Löwenthal, Bewährung im Untergang – Ein Gedenkbuch, Stuttgart 1965, S. 191; Horst Göppinger, Juristen jüdischer Abstammung im ‚Dritten Reich’ – Entrechtung und Verfolgung, München 1990, S. 257; Wilhelm-Gymnasium Hamburg 1881–1956, Hamburg 1956, S. 114; Ina Lorenz (Hrsg.), Zerstörte Geschichte – Vierhundert Jahre jüdisches Leben in Hamburg, Hamburg 2005, S. 199; Angelika Schindler, Der verbrannte Traum. Jüdische Bürger und Gäste in Baden-Baden, Bühl-Moog 1992, S. 130–134 (Novemberpogrom); Hamburgs Handel und Verkehr, Illustriertes Export-Handbuch der Börsenhalle 1912/14, Hamburg, S. 130 (Benedict Schönfeld & Co.); Gespräch mit Herrn K. H. (Hamburg), Juni 2009; Gespräch mit Herrn H. H. (Hamburg) sowie Fotoabzug, Juni 2009.
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