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Passfoto Ottilie Metzger-Lattermann
Ottilie Metzger-Lattermann
© Nationalarchiv Belgien (NAB)

Ottilie Metzger-Lattermann * 1878

Dammtorstraße 28 (Oper) (Hamburg-Mitte, Neustadt)

1942 Auschwitz aus Belgien
1939 Flucht nach Belgien

    (Die Stolpersteine vor der Staatsoper wurden aus Anlass der Ausstellung 'Verstummte Stimmen' verlegt. Weitere Informationen finden Sie unter dem vorstehenden Link)

further stumbling stones in Dammtorstraße 28 (Oper):
Gustav Brecher, Dr. Max Fraenkel, Hermann Frehse, Camilla Fuchs, Mauritz Kapper, Jacob Kaufmann, Kurt Abraham Salnik, Joseph Schmidt, Magda Spiegel, Viktor Ullmann, Bruno Wolf

Ottilie Metzger-Lattermann, born on 15 July 1878 in Frankfurt/Main, deported on 10 Oct. 1942 to Auschwitz-Birkenau

Dammtorstrasse 28 (Opera)

Ottilie Metzger was born on 15 July 1878 in Frankfurt am Main at Sömmeringstrasse 18. Her parents Ludwig Richard Metzger (born on 20 Mar. 1852 in Frankfurt/Main) and Rosalie "Rosa” Metzger, née Metzger (born on 30 Dec. 1854 in Speyer/Palatinate), both of the Jewish faith, had married in 1877 in the birthplace of the bride. Her father, Ludwig Metzger, is said to have worked as a journalist and editor for the respected liberal Berliner Tageblatt. No further information could be found about her brother Otto Metzger and her sister Lisa. Ottilie Metzger attended school in Frankfurt/Main and the municipal high school for girls (Lyzeum) in Oberursel/Taunus. The family probably moved from Frankfurt to Berlin around 1892/1893; the Berlin directory shows entries for an editor Ludwig Metzger from 1893 to 1921.

From 1894 onward, Ottilie Metzger took singing lessons with Ottilie Hey in Berlin and in 1895, she changed to the Stern Conservatory (owned by Gustav Hollaender) on Bernburger Strasse in Berlin-Kreuzberg, in the immediate vicinity of the Berlin Philharmonic Hall. Ottilie Metzger studied singing and received engagements at the Stadttheater Halle/Saale (1898–1899), the Opernhaus in Cologne (1900–1903), and the Hamburger Stadttheater (1903–1915). During her engagement in Hamburg, she also made guest appearances in Berlin, Frankfurt/Main, Magdeburg, Mannheim, Munich, Prague, Vienna, and Wiesbaden. From 1902, she also performed repeatedly in London. Her vocal register included mezzo-soprano and alto, and she was among the outstanding female alto singers in Germany. Her opera repertoire ranged from Richard Wagner (Walküre, Siegfried, Lohengrin, Parsifal, Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg, Tristan und Isolde, Der fliegende Holländer, Rienzi) to Georges Bizet (Carmen), Guiseppe Verdi (Aida, Der Troubadour, Ein Maskenball, Rigoletto), Pietro Mascagni (Cavalleria rusticana), Christoph Willibald Gluck (Orpheus und Eurydike), Giacomo Meyerbeer (Der Prophet) to Richard Strauss (Salome, Elektra, Die Frau ohne Schatten). The music critic Heinrich Chevalley (1870–1933) judged in 1905 that she "knew, even without role models, how to create and develop new characters with a sharp profile. There are no templates here, no proven stage tricks, but real figures, who are rooted in the ground of the dramatic and the musical in new works.”

In Hamburg, she had a firm place in the ensemble and succeeded the famous alto Ernestine Schumann-Heink (1861–1936). She first appeared in the Hamburg directory in 1905 with her own entry without a professional title: "Metzger-Froitzheim, Ottilie, Hartungstr. 8” (Rotherbaum). Clemens Froitzheim (born on 29 Jan. 1868 in Cologne), whom she had married in 1902, was also registered at this address. In 1906, the couple moved to Oderfelder Strasse 11 (Harvestehude), on the fourth floor, with a telephone connection. Clemens Froitzheim, according to Chevalley an "art-loving man, especially sensitive in matters of taste concerning the arts and crafts,” operated a business dealing in interior furnishings at Hermannstrasse 17 (Altstadt) in Hamburg starting in 1906; the company focused on "interior art, specialty being the production of entire apartment furnishings according to his own designs” and, according to the 1914 telephone directory, he was an "architect for constructional and spatial art.” The "Clemens Froitzheim” company was listed in the Hamburg company register from 1912 to 1922.

The marriage was divorced in 1908. Clemens Froitzheim then moved to the Alsterdammhotel in Hamburg for two years; Ottilie Metzger continued to live at Oderfelder Strasse 11 and in 1910, she married in Hamburg the opera singer (bass baritone) Theodor Lattermann (born on 29 July 1886 in Frankfurt/Main), who had moved to the city in Sept. 1908. Witnesses to the marriage were Wolff "Wilhelm” Heymanson, owner of the umbrella and walking stick factory of the same name (Semperhaus at Spitalerstrasse 10), residing at Oderfelder Strasse 15, and the chemist and director of the Palmin Works, Paul Pollatschek, from Wilhelmsburg (residing at Rotenhäuserstrasse 7). Their daughter Susanne "Susi” Leonore Lattermann was born on 17 June 1911 at Oderfelder Strasse 11.

In Oct. 1910, Ottilie Metzger-Lattermann appeared on stage in Hamburg as Carmen alongside Enrico Caruso during his Hamburg guest performance, with Otto Klemperer at the conductor’s podium. The Hamburger Fremdenblatt mentioned in its 10 Sept. 1911 issue that "Mrs. Ottilie Metzger, our acclaimed opera singer, has been honored by the French government with the appointment as ‘Officer of the Academy’ and the award of the Palms of the Academy.” The diploma of the Académie Française was presented to her on 12 Sept. 1911 in Hamburg by theater director Privy Councilor Max Bachur.

Because of war-related savings in the cultural budget, she ended her engagement in Hamburg; her successor became Sabine Kalter (1889–1957) in Sept. 1915. Works by living foreign composers with whose countries of origin the German Empire was at war were by then considered unacceptable not only in Hamburg. In 1914/15 Ottilie Metzger-Lattermann travelled with her husband to the USA for an extended tour. It was followed in 1916 by guest appearances in Amsterdam, Lille (at this time occupied by German troops), Hamburg (on 30 Oct. 1916), Berlin, and Breslau (today Wroclaw in Poland). In 1917, she appeared in Bern and Zurich, among others. For numerous appearances in German war hospitals and in front of German soldiers (e.g., in Ghent) she received various awards. There is a photograph of her wearing three decorations on her dress.

After the First World War, she accepted an engagement at the Dresden State Opera (1918–1921); according to the Dresden directory, she lived at Sedanstrasse 24. Shortly before the end of the Dresden engagement in 1921, Lattermann and his wife bought the two-story Villa Erica (built in 1873 as the spa building) in Teltow-Seehof at Max-Sabersky-Allee 42, just outside Berlin’s southern city limits, which they actually occupied. After her farewell from Dresden, Ottilie Metzger-Lattermann made guest performances in Oslo and Barcelona, among others; on 3 June 1922, she performed again in Hamburg. Afterward, she went on another extensive North American tour with her husband (1922–1924), together with Leo Blech’s German Opera Company. Due to an illness of her husband, she retired from the stage in 1925 and gave only occasional guest performances and concerts.

In Mar. 1926, Theodor Lattermann died at the age of 40 and he was buried in the large Park Cemetery Berlin-Lichterfelde (Steglitz), not far from Teltow. Ottilie Metzger-Lattermann and her daughter moved into a rented apartment in Berlin in June 1930; the house in Teltow was rented out. From 1927, she taught singing at the Stern’sche Conservatory in Berlin-Kreuzberg, where she herself had received her singing education. One of her singing students was the heldentenor Max Lorenz.

After the National Socialist "seizure of power” ("Machtergreifung”), she had to register with the Reich Music Chamber (Reichsmusikkammer), and her last public concerts were said to have taken place in 1933 in Berlin (under Bruno Walter) and in Dresden (under Otto Klemperer). After that, she was only allowed to perform at events of the Jewish Cultural Federation (Jüdischer Kulturbund) due to her Jewish descent. For activities in the Jewish Cultural Association, a questionnaire had to be filled out as well and submitted to the Reich Music Chamber. This also affected private music teachers, who had to present a certificate of descent; in the event of refusal, they were threatened with a professional ban. Singing teachers classified as Jewish, such as Ottilie Metzger-Lattermann, were only allowed to carry out singing training for Jews.

In Hamburg, two leading Nazis had already been appointed to the Opera’s Supervisory Board in the spring of 1932. The termination of the soloist contracts, with the aim of concluding cheaper new contracts, meant farewell for the Jewish singers Helene Falk, Emmy Land, and Anny Münchow. Conductor Werner Wolff and dramaturge Friedrich Heller-Halberg also had to leave. On 21 Jan. 1933, the Hamburg newspapers reported that Heinrich K. Strohm had succeeded Leopold Sachse (1880–1961) as artistic director. In 1933/34, the opera houses in the Nazi German Reich gave notice of termination to almost all Jewish artists. In Hamburg, the singer Rose Book (1907–1995) as well as the singers Ferdinand Christophory (1885–1974), Hans Grahl/tenor (1895–1966), Julius Gutmann/bass (1889–1960), and Paul Schwarz/tenor (1887–1980) were dismissed. One exception in the Hanseatic city was the extremely popular mezzo-soprano Sabine Kalter, married to the banker Max Aufrichtig (born on 8 July 1879), who was allowed to perform until 5 Jan. 1935 and who emigrated to London in 1938.

The opera houses took over the "racial” control of their staff on behalf of the Nazi state. In Berlin-Charlottenburg on 12 Oct. 1934, General Director Wilhelm Rode (1887–1959) ordered a notice to be posted: "The order according to which all personnel had to provide the documents concerning their ancestry in the month of August has, for the most part, not yet been complied with. I ask all defaulting members to bring the papers as soon as possible and hand them in personally to the accounting department. (...) Members who do not comply with the order in the shortest possible time shall (be) made known to the Ministry.”

From 1932 to 1938, Ottilie Metzger-Lattermann lived in Berlin-Wilmersdorf at Berliner Strasse 11/12; in the directory behind her name was the title of "Kammersängerin,” which had been awarded to her and was not a professional title [but a title of honor for outstanding singing]. In 1939, her name no longer appeared in the Berlin directory. She was registered in the May 1939 national census as residing at Güntzelstrasse 17/18 (Berlin-Wilmersdorf), where she probably lived as a subtenant while she was preparing her emigration. In Oct. 1938, she had sold the house in Teltow to Friedrich and Gertrud Dorsch, née Brandenburg. The furniture was stored at the "Allgemeine Transportgesellschaft,” a moving company, and was later to be sent to the final emigration address. The items included, among others, a Bechstein concert grand piano; an antique 12-piece dining room furniture set; a 37-piece silver-plated dinnerware set; cutlery for 24 persons, half gilded and half silver-plated; a liqueur service; a tea trolley; a phonograph with 170 records; 7 bronzes; various wooden and marble figures; 50 wall plates; trinkets and pictures; 1 pair of chamois antlers; 10 boxes with books and sheet music; theater costumes; stage decoration; 3 opera glasses; and 2 cameras. Based on a government order, her silverware and jewelry had to be delivered to the pawnshop on Jägerstrasse for a meager reimbursement.

On 3 Jan. 1939, Ottilie Metzger-Lattermann had received her passport, valid for one year, which indicated with a capital "J” the "race affiliation” as determined by the Nazis.

Ottilie Metzger-Lattermann emigrated on 20 July 1939 with a visa valid for three months (applied for on 1 Dec. 1938, issued on 30 June 1939 by the Belgian Embassy in Berlin) via Düsseldorf to Brussels, where she had made a guest appearance in 1903 and in the 1912/13 season, and where her daughter had already emigrated in Oct. 1936. For the visa, she had submitted a medical certificate from Fritz Kuhlmann, "specialist for internal diseases” (Berlin-Friedenau, Kirchstrasse 16), and a certificate of good conduct from the Berlin police to the Belgian Embassy in Berlin. She based her visa application on the fact that she wished to live in Belgium and wanted to be close to her daughter. A few days after entering the country, on 25 July 1939, she completed a "questionnaire for foreign nationals who describe themselves as political refugees” in order to secure her residence status in Belgium beyond the visa period. Her anti-Semitic persecution in Germany was not sufficient for her to stay in Belgium permanently. The fact that she wanted to emigrate from Belgium to Chile in Feb. 1940 suggests that she was not granted a permanent residence permit in Belgium.

From the summer of 1939 to the winter of 1940, she found accommodation near or with her daughter in the towns of Schaerbeek and Ixelles, which were directly linked to Brussels, as well as in Uccle.

With the beginning of the war in Sept. 1939, entry into many countries became more difficult; after the invasion of Belgium by the German Wehrmacht in May 1940, any further emigration from Belgium was impossible. Ottilie Metzger-Lattermann was entered in the Jewish register at the end of Nov. 1940 on the orders of the occupying forces. At that time, she was living in Uccle/Ukkel near Brussels at Rue Lincoln 94. In Jan. 1941, she received a foreign national’s identity card with the bilingual red stamp indicating "Juif – Jood” directly above her passport photo. The German occupying forces had introduced this labeling requirement in Belgium to facilitate persecution.

Half a year later, she moved to Brussels-Saint-Gilles, first in July 1941 to Rue Antoine Bréart 135 A, and in Oct. 1941 to Avenue du Haut Pont 11 to stay with her daughter. Already in Mar. 1941, she had drawn up her will in handwriting, appointing her daughter as heir and authorized representative. At the end of the few sentences, she spoke of her death: "I want to be burned and resolve that my ashes will be buried at a time possible, in the grave of my husband, who preceded me, in Berlin-Lichterfelde.”

After her German citizenship had been revoked, "apatride” ("without a home country”) was entered behind her name in the Brussels register of Jews on 18 Aug. 1942. Shortly thereafter, on 2 Oct. 1942, Ottilie Metzger-Lattermann was arrested and interned on 7 Oct. 1942 in the former barracks in Dossin near Mechelen (Malines), which had been designated by the German occupiers as a collection camp for Jews, Roma, and Sinti. Ottilie Metzger-Lattermann wrote two more postcards to her daughter: "Was in B (Brussels) until Wednesday, here (in Mechelen) everything was taken from us, even scissors, lead and holders (presumably pencil and penholder), lamp, money, canned goods (...) (there) will be transports, nobody (is) safe.” Only a few days later, on 10 Oct. 1942, she was deported from there to the Auschwitz-Birkenau extermination camp. The second postcard, privately forwarded, was written immediately before the departure of the deportation train: "Saturday. We are sitting in the train, 10 persons in the compartment, including 4 children (...) there are almost only Poles in the camp, one hears only Yiddish (...). We slept (in Mechelen) on straw, but it was all really not too bad. Children and old people got milk and we all got handed into the train 1 bread and 2 meatballs, 2 pears and tomatoes, honey. I still have your sandwiches and stuff. It goes to the Upper Silesian district of Katowice, three days’ journey, have a window seat. Will write to Bruno’s brother in detail, Wannsee, Tristanstrasse, he is on the transport. (...) The old tree is dying, but had to come along anyway (...). Everything is tracked down, transports come every few hours, even (handicapped) people from the institution are picked up! (...) They took everything from us upon admission, even nail files, watches, the brooch, the ordinary buttons! Offended me all very much. So far it’s been a piece of cake (...).” The destination of the deportation train was the Auschwitz-Birkenau extermination camp. It can be assumed that Ottilie Metzger-Lattermann was immediately assigned to the group of those to be killed shortly after arrival on 12 Oct. 1942 during a "selection.” The exact date of her death is not known; in 1958, the Berlin-Charlottenburg District Court (Amtsgericht) declared her dead as of 31 Dec. 1945.

The Geheime Staatspolizei Staatspolizeileitstelle (Gestapo headquarters) in Berlin pushed on with Ottilie Metzger-Lattermann’s expatriation in Sept. 1941. At the same time, the Gestapo instructed the Berlin tax office "Moabit-West, Dienststelle f-d-Einziehung verfallender Vermögenswerte,” the office dealing with confiscation of forfeited assets, to "auction off the moving goods of the Jewess Lattermann stored at the Allgemeine Transportgesellschaft [shipping agency] Berlin NW 21, Quitzowstr. 11/17. The proceeds of the auction are to be transferred to Deutsche Bank (...) for credit to the account of Geheime Staatspolizei Stapo A 4, special account 1821.” On 1 July 1942, Ottilie Metzger-Lattermann’s home furnishings were auctioned off at Hardenbergstrasse 29 a-e (Berlin-Charlottenburg) for 11,200 RM (reichsmark). The building of the "Ausstellungshalle AG am Zoo” accommodated the auction rooms of Dr. W. Achenbach auctioneers. The chief tax secretary Kruse prepared an exact list of the 348 items up for auctioning, with purchase price and last names of the buyers detailed in typewriting. The items included, among others, two paintings (for 300 and 600 RM to Witte) not described in any detail, a watercolor (for 160 RM to Dr. Heyne on Uhlandstrasse), a Blüthner grand piano (for 1,400 RM to Wulf), and a Persian carpet (for 1,500 RM to Olbrich).

Ottilie’s daughter Susanne Lattermann (born on 17 June 1911 in Hamburg) had attended the Goethe-Lyzeum, a girls’ high school, in Berlin-Lichterfelde-Ost until 1930, after which she took private lessons in shorthand and typewriting, and from Dec. 1930 worked as a secretary at various companies. She also received singing lessons from her mother. In 1932/33, she appeared as singer (soprano) of the "Fritz Favorits,” which had appearances in Berlin, Düsseldorf, Dresden, and Italy. "After this ensemble was disbanded, I sang alone in Berlin in various bars, such as the Jockey Bar, the Ritz Bar and Freddy’s Bar, (something that) was terminated due to the ban on performances,” she wrote to the Berlin Restitution Office in 1968. Susanne Lattermann also had to register with the Reich Music Chamber, where she was registered as a "half-Jewess” ("Halbjüdin”) in the "Jews’ List 4” ("Judenliste 4”) and excluded in 1938.

Out of necessity, from 1934 onward, Susanne Lattermann worked as a secretary, from 1 Mar. 1934 until 1 Oct. 1936, at Damenkonfektion Rudolph Loewinberg (Berlin W8, Schützenstrasse 8), a ready-to-wear woman’s fashion store, for 200 RM a month. In the course of the "Aryanization” of the company, she was dismissed. She left Berlin for Belgium on 2 Oct. 1936 and lived there until 1940 in Brussels (Avenue Emilie Max 182), Schaerbeek, Ixelles, and Woluwe Saint Lambert (Avenue Henri Dietroch 1). In 1937, she married the Catholic furniture manufacturer Emile L. L. Vander Voort (born on 27 June 1904 in Liege), thereby acquiring Belgian citizenship and working as a secretary. In Dec. 1940, she also had to have herself entered in the Jewish register of the German occupiers. As religious creed, she indicated Protestant, as she did for her deceased father, Theodor Lattermann.

As a Belgian citizen of Christian denomination with a Jewish and a Protestant parent, she was initially spared internment and deportation by the German occupying forces. Nevertheless, in her Belgian identity card, the word "Jew” ("Jude”) was stamped red ink, both in Flemish and French (Juif - Jood). In Dec. 1947, she emigrated to the USA, where after her divorce in Apr. 1948, she married Kenneth Lennard and became an American citizen.

Ottilie Metzger-Lattermann’s brother, Otto Metzger, is said to have been assistant to Arthur Hirsch in 1933; we do not have any further information on him. Sister Lisa Rosenberg, née Metzger, emigrated from Berlin to the USA in 1936.

In Bayreuth, where Ottilie Metzger-Lattermann had performed at the Bayreuth Festival as an interpreter of Wagner from 1901 to 1904 and in 1912, a memorial plaque was unveiled for her in 1998 in the park below the Festival Hall. In Halle/Saale, Ottilie-Metzger-Weg has been commemorating her since 1999. In 2007, a Stolperstein was laid for her in front of the Hamburg State Opera (formerly Hamburg Stadttheater).

Translator: Erwin Fink
Kindly supported by the Hermann Reemtsma Stiftung, Hamburg.

Stand: May 2020
© Björn Eggert

Quellen: 5; Staatsarchiv Hamburg (StaH) 132-1 I (Senatskommission für die Reichs- und auswärtigen Angelegenheiten I), 727 (Verleihung der französischen ‚Palmes d’Officier d’Academie‘ an Ottilie Metzger-Lattermann, 1911); StaH 132-1 I (Senatskommission für die Reichs- und auswärtigen Angelegenheiten I), 786 (Verleihung des österreichischen Ehrenzeichens 2. Klasse vom Roten Kreuz an Kammersänger Georg/Theodor Lattermann, 1918); StaH 135-1 I-IV (Staatl. Pressestelle I-IV), 5143 (Personal des Stadttheaters 1931-1933); StaH 231-7 (Handels- u. Genossenschaftsregister), A 1 Band 70 (Clemens Froitzheim HR A 17237); StaH 332-5 (Standesämter), 8668 u. 61/1910 (Heirat von Ottilie Metzger u. Theodor Lattermann); StaH 332-8 (Alte Einwohnermeldekartei), Clemens Froitzheim, Theodor Lattermann; StaH 351-11 (Amt für Wiedergutmachung), 11947 (Kalter, Sabine); StaH 363-4 (Kultusverwaltung – Personalakten), 218 (Sabine Kalter); StaH 731-8 (Zeitungsausschnitt-Sammlung ZAS), A 760 (Kalter, Sabine); StaH 731-8 (ZAS), A 762 (Metzger-Lattermann, Ottilie); National Archives of Belgium (NAB), Brüssel, Ausländerakte A327.402 (Ottilie Metzger), mit Passfoto; Landesamt für Bürger- u. Ordnungsangelegenheiten Berlin Abt. I (Labo), Entschädigungs-Akte 316.161 (Ottilie Lattermann), Entschädigungs-Akte 361.214 (Susanne/Susan Lennard geb. Lattermann); Stadtarchiv Speyer, Heiratsregister Nr. 116/1877 (Ludwig Metzger und Rosa Metzger); Institut für Stadtgeschichte Frankfurt/Main, Geburtsregister 1886, Band 5, 117 (Albrecht Theodor Lattermann), Hausstandsbuch S. 261 (Untermieter Karl Lattermann, Jahnstr. 60); Stadtarchiv Oberursel, Festschrift des Lyzeums Oberursel 1916, S. 33 (Ottilie Metzger); Kreisarchiv Potsdam-Mittelmark (Bad Belzig), Aktenbestand Regelung offener Vermögensfragen (ARoV 12038-590268-90), Archivsignatur 28033 (Haus in Teltow); Stadtarchiv Halle/Saale (Ottilie-Metzger-Weg); Dokumentationszentrum Kaserne Dossin (Mechelen/Belgien), Judenregister 1940 (Ottilie Metzger, Susanne Leonore Lattermann), Deportationsliste (Nr. 66 Ottilie Metzger); Handelskammer Hamburg, Handelsregisterinformationen (Clemens Froitzheim, HR A 17237); Adressbuch Hamburg 1905–1914; Adressbuch Hamburg (Heymanson) 1910; Adressbuch Wilhelmsburg (Pollatschek) 1910, 1912; Telefonbuch Hamburg 1914 (Clemens Froitzheim, Theodor Lattermann-Metzger); Adressbuch Berlin 1932, 1934, 1937, 1938; Fernsprechbuch Berlin 1925 (mit Teltow, Theodor Lattermann); Adressbuch Dresden 1920; Hamburger Börsenfirmen 1910, S. 198 (Clemens Froitzheim); Hamburger Fremdenblatt 10.9.1911; Hamburger Fremdenblatt 31.10.1916 Abendausgabe (Hamburger Gastspielkritik); Hamburger Abendblatt 11.8.2006, Falk: Stimmen; Chevalley: Ottilie Metzger-Froitzheim; Bergner/Leder (Hrsg.): Nachbarn, S. 69–84 (Ottilie Metzger-Lattermann); Föttinger: Ottilie Metzger-Lattermann, unter: (eingesehen 18.7.2016); Heer/Kesting/Schmidt (Hrsg.): Stimmen, Ausstellungskatalog, S. 15, 17, 48 (Entlassungen), S. 40 (Ottilie Metzger-Lattermann); o.A.: Meyers Lexikon, 2. Band, S. 975–977 (Brüssel, mit Stadtplan); Wulf: Musik, S. 405, 407, 410–413 (Fragebogen Kulturbund); Wulf: Künstler, S. 317, 319, 320; (eingesehen 18.7.2016); census Gemany (Ottilie Lattermann geb. Metzger).
Zur Nummerierung häufig genutzter Quellen siehe Link "Recherche und Quellen".

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