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Benno Hirschfeld
Benno Hirschfeld
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Benno Hirschfeld * 1879

Neuer Wall 19 (Hamburg-Mitte, Neustadt)

JG. 1879
ERMORDET 10.4.1945

further stumbling stones in Neuer Wall 19:
Kurt Manfred Hirschfeld

Benno Hirschfeld, born 23 Mar. 1879 in Kasparus, West Prussia, deported May 1943 to Auschwitz, 22 Jan. 1945 deported onward to Buchenwald
Kurt Manfred Hirschfeld, born 1922, arrested in Neuengamme concentration camp in October 1944, death there at 28 of January 1945

Neuer Wall 19 / Frauenthal 13

Benno (actually Berger) Hirschfeld was born in 1879 in the predominantly Catholic and Polish town of Kasparus in the district Prussia-Stargard in West Prussia. His father Simon Hirschfeld was a peddler with his own horse and cart and royal cashier. His mother Cäcilie Hirschfeld, née Rosenberg, managed a pub in their own house. On the high holy days, the family traveled to the synagogue in Schliewitz. Benno Hirschfeld had 11 siblings and was second youngest of the six sons. From Feb. 1897 to Dec. 1898, he worked as an assistant and commercial clerk for the Alsberg Company in Recklinghausen (Breite Straße 24); afterwards he moved to Berlin. He first appeared in the Hamburg address book in 1905 as the main tenant of an apartment at Neuen Wall 69, where his older brother Isidor Hirschfeld also lived briefly. Together with his five brothers Isidor (1868–1937), Joseph (1863–1899), Walter (died around 1910–11), Albert (1882–1931) and Emil Hirschfeld (1870–1934) he founded, in various constellations and ownerships, elegant ladies’ wear stores in Hamburg (first Isidor Hirschfeld in 1893, later jointly with Benno Hirschfeld), in Bremen (Emil Hirschfeld), in Lübeck (in 1898, Emil Hirschfeld), Hanover (Isidor, Benno and Emil Hirschfeld) and Leipzig (Isidor, Benno and Albert Hirschfeld) each in the legal form of a general partnership. The ownership of the properties also varied from city to city. The properties in Old Town Hamburg could only be acquired in phases, meaning the business property "Schleusenhof” (Neuer Wall 17) was purchased in 1919 from the Berlinische Life Insurance Corporation and the neighboring "Leinenhaus” (Neuer Wall 19/23) in 1928 from the owners of the linen store and the bed linens and bed factory Meissner & Son. The new owners merged both business properties under the name "Arkadenhaus” in 1929. Although the Hirschfelds’ individual clothing stores were independent businesses, the brothers made all important decisions jointly, decisions such as refurbishing stores and the hiring of personnel for the stores in Hamburg. The buying of sales stock for all stores was managed centrally at the Berlin buying office which Benno Hirschfeld ran. Berlin was the center of ladies’ wear. Benno Hirschfeld had rented a permanent room at the Hotel Kaiserhof for his extended stays (which was terminated in 1934). He also acted as buyer in Berlin for the befriended textile company Textilhaus Merkur (in Basel) until 1933. The company was first registered in the Hamburg address book as Gebr. Hirschfeld in 1894 as a "ladies’ coat factory”. The entry in the address book from 1900 illustrates the company’s rapid development: "Gebr. Hirschfeld, manufacturers of ladies’ and children’s coats of all styles with outstanding new models, vast stock of English rubber raincoats, athletic and travel apparel made of real loden, custom made in our own workshop.”

Benno Hirschfeld became a member of the German-Israelite Community in Hamburg and the liberal Jewish cultural association "Temple Association” in Mar. 1905. He married the Protestant Betty Köhn (1884–1962) from Mecklenburg with whom he had his two sons Hans (born in 1920) and Kurt (born in 1922). The family lived in a rental apartment at Moorweidenstraße 24 on the 3rd floor (1914–1934), at Moorweidenstraße 22 (1935–1939) and at Frauenthal 13 on the 2nd floor in Harvestehude (1942–1943). Betty Hirschfeld was registered in the address book for the last address in the house of Widow Ebert. During the years 1940 and 1941, no entries indicate the Hirschfelds as main tenants. Their older son Hans attended Binderstraße Elementary School before changing to Bogenstraße High School in 1930, which he was forced to leave in spring 1936 due to his father being Jewish. Isidor Hirschfeld (1868–1937) married Frieda née Brandenburger (born on 11 Dec. 1885); they had the five sons Rudolf (born in 1906), Walter (born in 1909), Herbert (born in 1910), Otto (born in 1911) and Gerhard (born in 1917). Isidor Hirschfeld worked as an apprentice beginning in 1882 at a textile business in the county seat Preußisch-Stargard, then from 1884 to 1888 in Berlin at Sielmann & Rosenberg (Kommandantenstraße 3/4), and as of 1889 he was the branch director of Sielmann & Rosenberg "Manufacturing & Tailoring” (Graskeller 6) in Hamburg and from autumn 1893, together with his brother Joseph Hirschfeld, owner of their own clothing business. Isidor Hirschfeld joined Hamburg’s German-Israelite Community in 1892 and the liberal Jewish cultural association "Temple Association”. In Mar. 1929, he was elected to the administrative board of the Israelite Temple Association where he was active in building the Oberstraße Temple (built 1930–1931). In 1930 he supported the election appeal of the Religious Liberal List for elections of the representative council of the German-Israelite Community in Hamburg. In 1903 Isidor Hirschfeld received Hamburg citizenship. He was also a member of the board of directors of the Reich Association of Textile Retailers and Certified Experts for the Retailer Chamber of Hamburg’s Retailers of Ladies’ and Children’s Wear (1921–1929) together with Siegfried Freundlich (1863–1942). Isidor Hirschfeld’s family lived at Moorweidenstraße 18 on the 3rd floor (1910–1934). Herbert Hirschfeld’s training provides an example of how the sons were prepared for their future role in the family business: from 1926–1929 apprenticeship at the S. Alsberg & Co. Department Store (Bielefeld), in 1929 substitute at S. Alsberg & Co. (Bielefeld), in 1930 Louis Rosenthal & Co Clothing Manufacturers (Berlin), in 1931 Basch & Kastel Coat Manufactures (Berlin), in 1932 manager and buyer at Gebr. Hirschfeld (Berlin), in 1934 manager and buyer at Gebr. Hirschfeld (Hamburg), in 1936 managing director and buyer at Gebr. Hirschfeld (Hanover).

The Hirschfelds maintained friendships with the Warburg, Rappolt und Robinsohn families, among others. The latter two also belonged to the high-end textile industry, like their friend Siegfried Freundlich, who managed, according to the 1928 address book, "A large store of fashion for young people, clothing for young ladies and young men” at Poststraße 2–4, corner of Neuer Wall ("Hübner-Haus”). They also kept close contact with his sisters Selma Galewski née Hirschfeld, also living in Hamburg, and Bertha Cohn née Hirschfeld (married to Salo Cohn, Ladies’ Coats Factory, Reeperbahn 89).

With the transfer of government to the coalition government of the NSDAP, German National People’s Party (DNVP) and German People’s Party (DVP), anti-Semitism was enshrined in law step by step. On 1 Apr. 1933 the Sturmabteilung (SA) and Schutzstaffel (SS) of the NSDAP boycotted businesses owned by Jews throughout the Reich. During the course of that operation, the SA also posted men in front of the entrance to "Gebr. Hirschfeld” to intimidate customers and owners in equal measure. Their former accountant Elsa Brey recounted the event during court proceedings in 1971: "There were guards at the doors and they did not let any customers into the store. That lasted 2 to 3 days. (…) We had to paint our delivery van that we used to distribute the merchandise neutrally so that no one could recognize that goods from a Jewish store were being delivered. We also heard that many husbands forbade their wives to shop with us because they might experience some unpleasantness.” At the same time, Jewish businesses were banned from advertising in the press. During the following years, the National-Socialists tightened their policies against Jews more and more, accompanying them with a flood of local and Reich-wide anti-Semitic ordinances, laws and measures.

On 15 May 1937 69-year-old Isidor Hirschfeld died on the street in front of the ladies’ clothing store "Gebr. Hirschfeld” at Neuen Wall 20. Their former accountant Marie Wulf reported in 1971: "Mr. Hirschfeld was fully active in the business until the very end. In the morning he labeled articles, took care of returned goods, dictated mail, and in the afternoon he usually supervised sales. That’s the way it went until the day he died. I can still remember that it happened on Whitsaturday in 1937. He had said goodbye to us, he had given us little presents, and then he died in front of the store as he was about to drive away in his car. They said at the time that it was a heart attack. (…) My personal impression was that Mr. Isidor Hirschfeld was the core of the entire Hirschfeld Family and Hirschfeld enterprise; his word meant something.”

Starting around 1936, the change in ownership in the German textile industry was having a negative effect, also in the fashion house Hirschfeld. As Jewish manufacturers and suppliers emigrated and/or sold to non-Jewish owners, a wave followed of contract and delivery cancellations by the new "Aryan” owners. That led to the first boycott-related shortages in Jewish clothing stores. The NSDAP additionally exerted massive pressure on producers to stop supplying Jewish stores via the supplier association "Consortium of German-Aryan Clothing Industry Manufacturers” (ADEFA), established by the National-Socialist state in 1938 in Berlin. The state had essentially created a supplier cartel acting in line with the National Socialists. The cartel stopped supplying goods to Jewish stores, thus forcing their owners to sell their businesses if they hoped to receive any proceeds from the sale of their enterprise. In that situation, Benno Hirschfeld decided he had no alternative but to sell. At the end of Sept. 1938 Senior Civil Servant Fritz Klesper (born 1900, NSDAP member as of 1 May 1933), officer of the Currency Office of the chief finance president, issued a "security order according to § 37a of the currency law” for all assets belonging to Benno and Betty Hirschfeld and in doing so removed it from the owners’ control. Moreover, the position of managing director was taken away from Benno Hirschfeld on 19 Nov. 1938, and the Currency Office instated Edgar Koritz (born 1889, member of the NSDAP since Aug. 1935) from the "Treuhansa” (Hanseatic Asset Management and Trust Company Ltd.) as trustee with "sole power of representation”, in line with National-Socialist policies. At that time, Benno Hirschfeld was in custody. During the November pogrom, he and his son Hans Hirschfeld had been arrested early on the morning of 10 Nov. 1938 in Bremen and crammed into an overcrowded communal cell of the prison there. Hans Hirschfeld was released after several hours, and he immediately tried to get his father off through Gebr. Hirschfeld’s company lawyer. The lawyer spoke with resignation about the powerlessness of the judicial system and the unlimited might of the Gestapo. Benno Hirschfeld was not released until after he had a second heart attack. The November pogrom of 1938, cynically called the "Reich’s Crystal Night” (Reichskristallnacht) by the National Socialists, also led to great damage and vast loss of merchandise in the stores of "Gebr. Hirschfeld”. Three or four trucks full of SA men drove out ahead to organize the destruction of stores. The night porter was driven away, and the work of destruction was systematically carried out: all store windows and glass display cabinets were smashed, wood cabinets demolished, clothing racks thrown over the banisters down to the ground floor, all window displays were stolen (fur coats, evening dresses, coats, mannequins) and large amounts of clothing damaged – the losses were estimated at about 100,000 RM. The replacement glass for the store fronts alone cost 11,200 RM. The glass insurance company Glassschutzkasse (Hamburg, Neue Rabenstrasse 27–30) rejected their obligation to replace the glass, referring to a retrospectively enacted regulation of 12 Nov. 1938, according to which the immediate clean-up of the damage from the "Reichkristallnacht” fell to the Jewish store owners, and insurance claims were, at the same time, ruled out.

Within the framework of the Reich-wide organized attacks on individuals and stores, the managing director of "Gebr. Hirschfeld” in Hanover and son of Isidor Hirschfeld, Herbert Hirschfeld (born in 1910 in Hamburg), was deported. On 10 Nov. he had entered his ravaged store in Old Town Hanover (Große Packhofstraße 4–5 and 6–8) where he was arrested by SS men without any reason being given, taken to prison, and deported to Buchenwald concentration camp where he remained in "protective custody” until 17 Jan. 1939. Herbert Hirschfeld emigrated in June 1939. The managing director Dr. Walter Reifenberg and his wife Cecilie Reifenberg, née Hirschfeld, emigrated prior to 21 Nov. 1939. The Hamburg lawyer Heinrich Günther engaged by the company owners wrote the following note in their files on 17 Nov. 1938: "From the 9th to the 11th of Nov. 1938 (…) the merchandise in Hanover was seized by uniformed SS and taken away in trucks. Sometime after that, other merchandise not belonging to them was thrown into the store of the company Gebrüder Hirschfeld.” The loss of merchandise in Hanover from the systematic robbery of the warehouse ran to approximately 200,000 RM. The fashion house in Hanover was sold by the "trustee” Freitag in Jan. 1939 with no knowledge of the owners.

In Hamburg Franz Fahning (1896–1958), former managing director of the department store Rudolph Karstadt AG in Hamburg (1930-1935) and former co-owner of the company Franz Fahning KG in Duisburg (1935–1938) and member of the NSDAP since May 1937, acquired the Hirschfeld properties at Neuer Wall 17-23, Schleusenbrücke 8–12 and Alsterarkaden 13/16 as well as the clothing business of Gebr. Hirschfeld in Nov. 1938 as "Aryanizer” and continued to run the business under the name "Franz Fahning – House of fashionable ladies’ wear”. Fahning was only able to raise the purchase sum of 1.5 million Reichsmarks for the buildings and business by taking on very high credit from Konsul Dietrichsen (Hamburg) of over 600,000 RM and from the Commerz and Private Bank AG of more than 380,000 RM. The determination of the value and with it the sale price was made by a valuator from the Reich Ministry of Economics in Berlin. For the company founders, the Hirschfeld Family, the "Aryanization” meant fees for lawyers, accountants, appraisers, the Commerz and Private Bank AG as well as the Aryanization levy of at least 200,000 RM, quite apart from the low proceeds they received from the sale. On 30 Nov. 1938, a large advertisement appears in the Hamburger Tageblatt: "Tomorrow morning at 10 a.m., Franz Fahning, previously Gebrüder Hirschfeld, will open the House of fashionable ladies’ wear at Neuer Wall. The Gebrüder Hirschfeld House, Hamburg, Neuer Wall has completely transferred into Aryan ownership as of 29 Nov. 1938 (…).”

The Hirschfelds’ commercial building in Leipzig (Peterstraße 40/42) was sold in Apr. 1941 to the "Administration Union for the Leipzig City and Savings Bank” at the low value assessed in 1937 and not, as was customary, at the higher market value. The Gebr. Hirschfeld’s fashion business in Leipzig had already been sold in 1938. In Lübeck (Breite Straße 39–41), the store for "Ladies’ and Children’s Clothing Gebr. Hirschfeld” was taken over by Herbert Gutsmann on 12 Nov. 1938 in the wake of the National-Socialist "Aryanization Policy”, and it continued to be run under his name. The last remaining managing directors of Gebr. Hirschfeld were Carl Camnitzer (whose wife was Lina Hirschfeld born on 6 June 1873) and Hermann Schild (whose wife was Emma Hirschfeld), who were both members of the board of the Lübeck Israelite Community. In July 1939 the Reich Association of Jews in Germany was founded throughout the Reich which Hamburg’s Jewish Community was forced to join as a district office. Here Walter Rudolphi (see his biography at took on the areas of welfare and healthcare in the newly formed board. He was reliant on volunteers, and Benno Hirschfeld agreed to set up a clothing store for the needy at Beneckestraße 2 (Rotherbaum). Franz Rappolt (see his biography at, who Benno Hirschfeld also had close personal ties to as a well-known Hamburg producer of quality clothing, also actively supported Walter Rudolphis’ (1880–1944) area of operations.

Following the loss of his Hamburg fashion business, Benno Hirschfeld was forced to endure harassment by the Currency Office, like a new "security order” issued on 17 Jan. 1940 and a summons on Saturday morning, the 20th of Apr. 1940 (the "Führer’s birthday”) during the Jewish Sabbath. His attempts to immigrate to the USA and to Cuba following the November Pogrom in 1938 failed. Benno Hirschfeld was detained at Fuhlsbüttel concentration camp for the first time from 3 Nov. 1940 to 25 Nov. 1940. A mere accusation was sufficient to be detained in Germany under the National-Socialist regime. In Benno Hirschfeld’s case, the caretaker in the neighboring house, a passionate Nazi, apparently denounced him, citing his listening to enemy radio broadcasts. At that Criminal Secretary Walter Wohlers and Criminal Secretary Walter Mecklenburg of the Secret Police showed up at his home at Frauenthal 13. During the first interrogation at his private residence, the Gestapo officers kicked and hit their 61-year-old victim to get a quick confession out of him. Afterwards Benno Hirschfeld was forced to get into a waiting car and taken to Fuhlsbüttel concentration camp or police prison. Three weeks later he returned, distraught, and when asked about his ordeal, he said he was not allowed to say anything about his time in custody. At the end of Feb. 1943, Willibald Schallert (born in 1896, a member of the NSDAP and the SA since 1930), who was responsible for the forced labor of Jewish men between 14 and 65 and Jewish women between 15 and 55, gave Hamburg’s Gestapo "advisor for Jews” Claus Göttsche a list with the names of 17 alleged work saboteurs. The list included Alfred Berend (born on 15 Sept. 1885 in Altona, see, Alfred Moser (born on 15 Apr. 1887 in Aachen, see, Fritz Scharlach (born on 25 Feb. 1898 in Hamburg) and the 63-year-old Benno Hirschfeld. The names on the list were exclusively Jewish husbands from "privileged mixed marriages”, most of them formerly independent businessmen between the ages of 45 and 67, two also volunteered at the Jewish Religious Association. Apart from Rudolf Hamburger who survived by fleeing, all of the persons named were deported to Auschwitz and killed. Schallert told Betty Hirschfeld: "There’s no need for you to do anything. Your husband is never coming back.” His son Hans Hirschfeld wrote to Field Marshal Hermann Göring in 1944, requesting his father’s release, but received no reply. Benno Hirschfeld was interned in Mar. 1943 at Fuhlsbüttel concentration camp and from there deported to Auschwitz-Birkenau extermination camp on a special transport. Due the advancing "Red Army”, he was deported on to Buchenwald concentration camp in Jan. 1945. His exact date of death there is not known; his final letter was dated 4 Mar. 1945. He was declared dead as of 10 Apr. 1945.

His younger son Kurt Hirschfeld (born in 1922), a trained textiles businessman, worked as a forced laborer from approximately 1941 at the Hamburg Heating and Plumbing Company Rudolf-Otto Meyer (Pappelallee 23–39). In Oct. 1944 he apparently was to join the work detail for "Jewish half-breeds” in the work army "Organization Todt” under the command of the Reichs Minister of Armaments and War Production, Albert Speer (born in 1905, member of the NSDAP since 1931). His last evening in Hamburg, Kurt Hirschfeld went out to drink wine with his friends Werner Möller and Günther Behrendson in a side street of the Reeperbahn. On the way home they sang (swing) pop songs. A crime officer became aware of them, followed them, believed he heard an enemy song, arrested them and handed them over to the officers at the station Davidswache (St. Pauli). The Gestapo at the Stadthausbrücke took over the "case”, turned the song into the "The Internationale”, forced confessions with the usual methods, and had Kurt Hirschfeld and Werner Möller delivered to Neuengamme concentration camp and Günther Behrendson to Buchenwald concentration camp – there were no court proceedings. A written petition from Hans Hirschfeld to obtain his brother’s release led to a summons to the Gestapo at Johannisbollwerk and wild threats from Criminal Secretary Hans Stephan (born on 1 May1902, member of the NSDAP and SS as of 1 May 1933) and the Criminal Secretary Walter Wohlers (born on 5 May 1902, joined NSDAP and SS on 1 May 1933).

According to official records, Kurt Hirschfeld died of diphtheria on 28 Jan. 1945 in the hospital at Neuengamme concentration camp. His two friends survived the concentration camp. Stumbling Stones were laid for Benno Hirschfeld and his son Kurt Hirschfeld in Aug. 2013 in front of their home at Frauenthal 13 (Harvestehude) and in front of the commercial building at Neuer Wall 19 (Neustadt). A metal plaque was mounted on the front of the former fashion house, Schleusenbrücke, in 1998 with the following words: "In memory of the Hirschfeld Brothers who ran their fashion house here until their life’s work was destroyed on 9 Nov. 1938”.

Selma Galewski, née Hirschfeld (born on 12 Oct. 1880 in Kasparus) and her husband Marcus, called Hugo, Galewski (born on 7 Mar. 1870 in Kempen, Posen) owned a clothing store at Steindamm 108-114. During the November pogrom of 1938, SA men also smashed the windows of their shop, and the company had to be sold off under pressure from the state. The 1940 address book already listed the new owners of the shop which had been renamed "Tönshoff & Henning Ladies’ Wear.” The property had also been acquired by the "Aryanizers” P. Tönshoff and Albert J. Henning. The Galewski couple was forced to leave their stylishly furnished 8-room apartment at Mittelweg 151 (Rotherbaum) in May 1941 due to pressure from state authorities. Their valuable furnishings were seized and publicly auctioned off by order of the chief finance president. The couple was deported to Theresienstadt Ghetto on 19 July 1942 and onward to Auschwitz extermination camp on 15 May 1944. Stumbling Stones have been laid for both at Johnsallee 29. Their son Robert Galewski (born on 5 Aug. 1906 in Hamburg) fled to France and was deported from Drancy camp on 4 Sept. 1942 to Auschwitz extermination camp. His brother Ernst Galewski (born in 1909) managed to depart for the USA some time in 1939; their sister Irene Guthmann, née Galewski (born in 1905) immigrated as late as about 1941 to San Francisco, via Moskow, Vladivostok and Tokyo. In Lübeck Stumbling Stones have been laid for Carl Camnitzer (born in 1873), Lina Camnitzer, née Hirschfeld (born in 1873) and their daughter Elsa Camnitzer (born in 1900) at Breite Straße 41. The family was deported on 6 Dec. 1941 from Hamburg to Riga-Jungfernhof Ghetto where they likely were killed in the mass shootings at Dünamünde in Mar. 1942. A Stumbling Stone memorializes Siegmund Freundlich (born on 10 Apr. 1863 in Neustettin), a textile merchant befriended with the Hirschfeld Family, at Sierichstraße 20 (Winterhude). Stumbling Stones have been placed for the alleged work saboteurs who were deported along with Benno Hirschfeld in Apr./May 1943 at Hirtenstraße 58 for Alfred Berend, at Novalisweg 1 for Alfred Moser, at Jean-Paul-Weg 10 for Alexander Grünberg (see, at Sierichstraße 66 for Herbert Ledermann (see, at Otto-Speckter-Straße 1 for Jonni Melhausen (see, at Lüneburger Straße 44 for Georg Cohn (see, at Klaus-Groth-Straße 29 for Harry Krebs (see, and at Klaus-Groth-Straße 99 for Fritz Heinsen (see

Information as of May 2016

Translator: Suzanne von Engelhardt

Kindly supported by the Hermann Reemtsma Stiftung, Hamburg.

Stand: November 2017
© Björn Eggert

Quellen: StaH 314-15 (Oberfinanzpräsident), F 1078b (Benno Hirschfeld); StaH 314-15 (OFP), R 1940/0020 (Benno Hirschfeld); StaH 332-5 (Standesämter), 1069 u. 160/1937 (Sterberegister 1937, Isidor Hirschfeld); StaH 332-7 (Staatsangehörigkeitsaufsicht), A I e 40 Bd.13 (Bürger-Register 1899–1905, A-H, Isidor Hirschfeld); StaH 332-8 (Meldewesen), Alte Einwohnermeldekartei, Film-Nr. K 6261 (Albert Hirschfeld, Joseph Hirschfeld); StaH 351-11 (Amt für Wiedergutmachung), 1267 (Isidor Hirschfeld) Band I u. II; StaH 351-11 (AfW), 42354 (Gerhard Hirschfeld, darin Lebenslauf von Herbert Hirschfeld); StaH 351-11 (AfW), 43961 (Hans Hirschfeld); StaH 351-11 (AfW), 46666 (Rolf Hirschfeld); StaH 351-11 (AfW), 4854 (Selma Galewski geb. Hirschfeld); StaH 522-1 (Jüdische Gemeinden), 992b (Kultussteuerkartei der Deutsch-Israelitischen Gemeinde Hamburg), Benno Hirschfeld, Isidor Hirschfeld; StaH 741-4 (Fotoarchiv), S 12115 (Hamburger Tageblatt, Mi. 30.11.1938, S. 11, Werbeanzeige Fahning); StaH 213-11, 06370/53 (Willibald Schallert wg. Freiheitsberaubung, Verbrechen gegen die Menschlichkeit, 1947–1950); StaH 221-11 (Staatskommissar für die Entnazifizierung), Ad 858 (Fritz Klesper), C 25 (Franz Fahning), Fa 13829 (Edgar Koritz); Stadtarchiv Hannover, I 342-1259/1896 (Heiratsurkunde 1896, Joseph Hirschfeld u. Hedwig Falk); Hamburgisches Staatshandbuch 1921 (S. 114), 1925 (S. 115), 1929 (S. 200), beeidigter Sachverständiger Isidor Hirschfeld; Hamburger Adressbuch 1910, 1914, 1919, 1928, 1934; Hamburger Adressbuch (Straßenverzeichnis Neuerwall) 1919–1922, 1925, 1927–1929; Hamburger Adressbuch (Straßenverzeichnis Steindamm) 1936, 1939, 1940, 1943; Archiv der Hansestadt Lübeck, Amtsgericht, HRA 840 (Gebr. Hirschfeld); Stadtarchiv Recklinghausen, Einwohnermeldekartei; Sonderarchiv Moskau, Signatur 500-1-659, SD-Oberabschnitt Nordwest, Liste einflussreicher und vermögender Juden, Blatt 56–58, Nr. 26 Hirschfeld Benno; Bundesarchiv Koblenz, Gedenkbuch (Benno Hirschfeld); Staatsarchiv Hamburg, Gedenkbuch, Hamburger jüdische Opfer des Nationalsozialismus, Hamburg 1995, S. 120 (Marcus und Selma Galewski, Robert Galewski), S. 175 (Benno Hirschfeld), S. 176 (Kurt Manfred Hirschfeld); Frank Bajohr, "Arisierung" in Hamburg, Hamburg 1998, S. 132, 151, 321, 360 (Gebr. Hirschfeld), S. 356 (Marcus Galewski Damen- u. Kinderbekleidung); Ulrich Bauche (Hrsg.), Vierhundert Jahre Juden in Hamburg, Ausstellung des Museums für Hamburgische Geschichte, Hamburg 1991, S. 466–467 (Nachtaufnahme Geschäft Hirschfeld, Eröffnungsanzeige Fahning); Franklin Kopitzsch/Dirk Brietzke (Hrsg.), Hamburgische Biografie – Personenlexikon, Band 1, Göttingen 2008 (2. Aufl.), S. 267–268 (Kurzbiografie von Beate Meyer zu Willibald Schallert); Ina Lorenz, Die Juden in Hamburg zur Zeit der Weimarer Republik, 2 Bände, Hamburg 1987, Seite 236, 665 (Isidor Hirschfeld); Beate Meyer, "Jüdische Mischlinge". Rassenpolitik und Verfolgungserfahrung 1933–1945, Hamburg 1999, S. 394 (Biografie Hans Stephan), S. 402 (Walter Wohlers); Beate Meyer (Hrsg.), Die Verfolgung und Ermordung der Hamburger Juden 1933 bis 1945, Hamburg 2006, S. 84 (Schallert, Hirschfeld); Wilhelm Mosel, Wegweiser zu ehemaligen jüdischen Stätten in Hamburg, Heft 3, Hamburg 1989, S. 42, S. 138 (Abb. von Benno Hirschfeld); Monika Richarz, Jüdisches Leben in Deutschland. Selbstzeugnisse zur Sozialgeschichte im Kaiserreich, Band 2, Stuttgart 1979, S. 243–250 (Isidor Hirschfeld, 1921); Werner Skrentny (Hrsg.), Hamburg zu Fuß. 20 Stadtteilrundgänge (…), Hamburg 1987, S. 13 ("Die Schaufensterpuppen im Alsterkanal"); Ulrike Sparr/Björn Eggert, Stolpersteine in Hamburg. Biografische Spurensuche, Hamburg 2011, S. 58–66 (Walter Rudolphi); Adressbuch Berlin (Adolf Sielmann & Meyer Rosenberg) 1885; Informationen von Heidemarie Kugler-Weiemann, 2015; Gespräch mit Herrn H.H. (Hamburg), Mai und Juni 2009; (Familie Camnitzer; eingesehen 22.1.2015).

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