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Alfons Haas * 1895
Parkallee 5 (Eimsbüttel, Harvestehude)
ERMORDET IN AUSCHWITZ
Alfons Haas, born on 3 Jan. 1895 in Borken, deported on 4 Sept. 1944 from Westerbork (NL) to Theresienstadt, deported on 29 Sept. 1944 to Auschwitz
Parkallee 5 (Harvestehude)
Alfons Haas was born on 3 Jan. 1895 in Borken/ Westphalia. His parents were Moses Haas (1862–1936) and Ricka Haas, née Friedmann (1866–1946). His seven siblings were born between 1888 and 1909. After attending the eight-grade elementary school (Volksschule) in Borken and a high school, he served as a soldier on the Western front from Oct. 1915 until the end of the war in 1918. He was initially assigned to the Ersatz Eskadron Ulanen Regiment (Replacement Squadron Uhlan Regiment) No. 5, from May 1916 to Field Artillery Regiment No. 33, and as of Mar. 1918, to Supply Company No. 326, before being wounded and admitted to hospital in Oct. 1918.
After his return from the war and recovery, he is said to have enrolled in the arts and crafts school in Hannover. In the 1920s, he was trained as a lumber buyer for Gebr. Haas & Co., a company founded in 1886 by his father and uncle. At the end of the 1920s, he moved to Altona (then not part of Hamburg) for professional reasons.
He was married since Jan. 1931 to Margot Hirschfeldt (born on 10 June 1909 in Hamburg; parents: Eduard Hirschfeldt and Henny Hirschfeldt, née Burchard). The Jewish Haas couple had a son, Michael (born on 30 Aug. 1931 in Hamburg). Since their wedding, they lived in Hamburg at Parkallee 5 (Harvestehude quarter) and since May 1938 at Haynstrasse 9 (Eppendorf), where the Hirschfeldt parents-in-law moved as well. Since 1932, Alfons Haas was a member of the Hamburg German-Israelitic Community and of the moderate conservative religious community of the "Neue Dammtor Synagoge” (N.D.S.). His uncle Jonas Haas (1865-1942) was from 1927 to 1942 the head oft he Jewish community of Borken.
Documents provide information about a well-furnished apartment of the Haas family, who obviously loved wooden furniture: mahogany bedroom, grained birch guest room, walnut study, and grained walnut dining room. The latter had been made at Deutsche Werkstätten Hellerau in Dresden. The children’s room featured mostly varnished furniture. Other objects reflected their belonging to middle-class society and the family’s hobbies: piano, phonograph, radio, bookcase, modern oil paintings, cloisonné vases, ivory figurines, Chippendale cigar boxes in grained walnut with birdseye maple lining. In the kitchen towered an electric refrigerator, at that time by no means usual. Silver cutlery and dishes (dining service and fruit service from Rosenthal) for 24 people were available for festive occasions. The daily housework was done by a maid and a nanny.
Together with his brother Harry Haas and his cousin Max Haas (both also residing in Hamburg) as well as the senior bosses and brothers Moses Haas and Jonas Haas (both residing in Borken), Alfons Haas was the owner of the Hamburg-Altona branch of Borken-based Gebr. Haas & Co., which was founded around 1927 and which traded in domestic and foreign woods and veneers. Leo Haas (born on 4 Dec. 1896 in Borken, brother of Alfons and Harry Haas) and Erich Haas (born on 3 Feb. 1897 in Borken, brother of Max Haas), both residing in Borken, were authorized signatories for the company. The business operated a branch in Paris, a timber warehouse in Milan, maintained contacts in the Balkans and cooperated in Hungary with Furnier- und Plattenwerke AG Újpest (Budapest, IV district). In 1933, the Hamburg branch had moved from the rented commercial premises at Rainweg 32 (Altona) to the company-owned property at Billstrasse 158 (Hamburg-Rothenburgsort).
In December 1937, the Hamburg branch was converted into an independent limited partnership. Alfons Haas (Hamburg), Harry Haas (Hamburg) and Leo Haas (Borken) were partners with unlimited liability, and Ricka Haas (Borken) also made a contribution of RM 20,000. After the forced "Aryanization", the company was reorganized from October 1938 under the name Ulrich, Lofink & Co. (owners Rudolf H. Ulrich and Reinhold J. Lofink).
From London, Harry Haas described the "Aryanization” in Mar. 1947: "In Sept. 1938, we were forced to surrender the firm to Group Leader [Gruppenführer] Ulrich and SS-Sturmbannführer [equivalent to the rank of major] Lohfink and a certain Mr. Meyer, who were members of the Nazi party (...).” Six months earlier, he had already reported that the alternative for him and the other company owners of the family had been "concentration camp or signature". The new "Aryan” owners of the company and the property (Billstrasse 156–158) had worked for the "Jewish” owners in the business for many years. Rudolf Ulrich (born on 5 Sept. 1907 in Karlsberg/Silesia, today Karlow in Poland) had started working for Gebr. Haas & Co. in Hamburg as an employee in 1928 after completing secondary commercial school in Görlitz. According to his denazification questionnaire, he eventually held senior positions in purchasing, sales, and organization. He belonged to the German national "Steel Helmet, League of Frontline Soldiers” ("Stahlhelm, Bund der Frontsoldaten”), founded in Dec. 1918, and to the "People’s League for Germanness Abroad” (Volksbund für das Deutschtum im Ausland – VDA), as well as to the Nazi party (NSDAP) starting in Apr. 1930. He worked for the party as a training and propaganda officer from about 1935, and in 1937, he was promoted to Nazi local group leader (NSDAP-Ortsgruppenleiter). Reinhold Lofink (born on 26 June 1907 in Altona) worked for three years as an employed timber buyer before joining Gebr. Haas & Co. in 1931. From 1933, he belonged to the NSDAP and the Marine SA (Marine-SA), where he became Obertruppführer in 1935 (an SA rank equivalent to staff sergeant). Lofink’s annual income in the period from 1931 to 1937 was between 6,000 and 9,000 RM (reichsmark), jumping to 20,000 to 30,000 RM after the takeover of his employer’s company. In addition to Ulrich and Lofink, Paul Friedrich Meyer, owner of the J. H. Dubbers & Hempell timber company (at Billstrasse 158), was also involved in the "Aryanized” business.
With the "Decree Concerning the Reporting of Jewish Assets” ("Verordnung über die Anmeldung des Vermögens von Juden”) dating from Apr. 1938, the Nazi regime created the basis for the systematic expropriation of Jewish property. With the revocation of passports (documented by Leo Haas for the end of July 1938), the Nazi state intensified the deprivation of rights and threats. On 10 Aug. 1938, Customs Inspector Kusch of the Hamburg Customs Investigation Office (at Poggenmühle 1) issued a provisional "security order” ("Sicherungsanordnung”) against the former partners of Gebr. Haas & Co., whereby all of their assets (including the money from the sale of the company) were frozen; this was confirmed five weeks later by the foreign currency office of the Hamburg Chief Finance Administrator (Oberfinanzpräsident). The lawyer Walter Klaas (born in 1895, not an NSDAP member) and the consul R. H. van de Vyver were appointed by the foreign currency office of the Chief Finance Administrator as trustees to liquidate the company. For this task, the two received about 33,000 RM overall. The foreign accounts receivable of the Milan-based company had to be assigned to Commerz- und Privat-Bank AG Hamburg.
At the same time, other companies in the timber trade sector were "Aryanized” in Hamburg.
The head office in Borken, legally independent by then, was acquired by Walter Krech from Hamburg in the course of the "Aryanization.”
Alfred Haas’ younger sister Ilse David, née Haas (born in 1907 in Borken) had moved to the Netherlands in 1934, only 10 kilometers (some 6 miles) from Borken. Four years later, the sisters Helene Gans, née Haas (1889–1973), and Erna Nachmann, née Haas (1899–1944), also emigrated there with their husbands. In Nov. 1938, Alfons Haas first fled Hamburg to his hometown of Borken and from there to the nearby Netherlands on 15 Nov. 1938, a few days after the November Pogrom. With the help of a farmer family from Borken with whom he was friends and who had also hidden him for a short time, he managed to cross the border illegally together with Erich Haas. The imposing double dwelling house of the Haas families in Borken, at Bahnhofstrasse 9–11, and the store in Borken had been devastated by a local SA detachment during the night of the November Pogrom.
In Nov. 1938, Alfons Haas was officially entered as a subtenant with Gans (brother in law Abraham Gans) in the register of residents of the Dutch town of Winterswijk. The family should follow and join him quickly. However, conditions for immigrants had already deteriorated significantly in the Netherlands as well. Since May 1938, even proof of sufficient funds no longer guaranteed them a permanent right of settlement in the Netherlands. Moreover, at the end of 1938, emigrants were asked to obtain new papers, a measure aimed at identifying people living in the country illegally.
After about two months in Winterswijk, Alfons Haas and his brother Leo Haas were arrested by the Dutch police as an illegal alien and interned in the small town of Beesel in Kamp Reuver on 12 Jan. 1939. This was followed by stations in the Hoek van Holland refugee camp near the mouth of the Meuse (from 29 Aug. 1939) and in the central Westerbork refugee camp (starting on 28 Mar. 1940), about 50 kilometers (approx. 31 miles) from the German border. He arrived at Kamp Westerbork only a few weeks before the German Wehrmacht’s invasion of the Netherlands (May 1940); due to this relatively early transfer, he was assigned to the main camp and he thus worked in this self-governing central reception camp. His cousin Erich Haas (1897–1968) had already been interned there since 23 Nov. 1939 and worked, among other things, in the sole gluing workshop. His sister Erna Nachmann, née Haas (1899-1944), her husband Hugo Nachmann (1889-1944) and their common daughter Hannelore (1927-1944) were deported from Amsterdam to the Westerbork camp only on August 8, 1942.
His wife Margot Haas and son Michael for the time being had to give up their traveling plans to join him, as the imprisonment of Alfons Haas had shown that they were threatened with rejection at the border or arrest in the Netherlands. Margot Haas received a "questionnaire for emigrants" from the employee of the foreign exchange office Heinke in April 1939; it was not until August 24, 1939 that Alfons Haas sent it in from the internment camp Reuver near Venlo via the "consulent" Dr. Edgar Haas (1877-1946) and his "legal assistant" Dr. Paul Dahns (1898-1985). However, certificates of clearance were still missing. Apparently, Alfons Haas wanted to improve his status in the Netherlands with a subsequent legalization of emigration and to make it possible for his wife and child to join him. However, the Foreign Exchange Office still refused to process the emigration in February 1940 due to the lack of clearance certificates.
On the Jewish religious tax (Kultussteuer) file card of the Hamburg German-Israelitic Community, the resignation of Alfons Haas was noted only in Sept. 1939, with the entry indicating "12 June 1939 Holland.” By that time, Alfons Haas, who had not been recorded in the German Reich during the May 1939 national census, was already in a Dutch refugee camp.
Alfons Haas remained in Kamp Westerbork when after the German occupation it was converted from a refugee camp into a transit camp for deportations. On 4 Sept. 1944, he and other inmates of the main camp were deported to the Theresienstadt Ghetto; on 29 Sept. 1944, he was transported further to the Auschwitz-Birkenau extermination camp, where he was sorted out as a worker, however.
On 6 Oct. 1944, 49-year-old Alfons Haas was assigned to a subcamp, the Golleschau (Goleszów) labor camp (prisoner no. B 11199), where he had to work in the quarry and in the cement plant. The forced labor camp was evacuated on 19 Jan. 1945 ahead of the advancing Red Army and the weakened prisoners were driven in strenuous marches to the Sachsenhausen concentration camp. It can be assumed that Alfons Haas died on 2 Feb. 1945, on this march, of exhaustion or by targeted shots fired by the SS guards. In 1950. On the Internet, the reference to his death is "Feb. 1945 Shotcrossingthe Oder River." The Hamburg District Court (Amtsgericht) set his date of death at 8 May 1945.
On 18 Nov. 1941, his 32-year-old wife Margot Haas and ten-year-old son Michael Haas were deported from Hamburg to the Minsk Ghetto in occupied Belarus. Their apartment at Haynstrasse 9 was sealed and the household effects were later auctioned off to the benefit of the Nazi state. Alfons Haas, Margot Haas, and Michael Haas are commemorated by Stolpersteine at Parkallee 5.
The fate of family members:
Alfons’ brother Harry Haas (born on 7 Sept. 1891 in Borken), who had completed an apprenticeship in a timber wholesale business in Kassel from 1906 to 1908 after attending high school, subsequently attended a secondary commercial school in Hamburg and gained experience abroad in Paris, married Charlotte "Lotte” Fürst (born on 29 Aug. 1908 in Hamburg) in Jan. 1932 in Hamburg. Since 1932, was on file as a member of the Hamburg German-Israelitic Community and the religious community of the "Neue Dammtorsynagoge.” The married couple had a daughter, Ellen Marlene Josefa Haas (born on 16 Aug. 1933 in Hamburg), who attended the private preschool run by Cläre (Clara) Lehmann (1874–1942) at Heilwigstrasse 46; from 1940, she was forced to attend the Talmud Tora School.
The residential addresses of Harry and Charlotte Haas in Hamburg were Rothenbaumchaussee 195 (1931–1933) and Isestrasse 125 (1934–1939). The 6 ½-room apartment in Isestraße had, among other things, a hallway, dining room, parlor and master bedroom, as well as a maid's room and a guest room. Harry Haas was deported from Hamburg to the Sachsenhausen concentration camp (Oranienburg) during the November Pogrom of 1938. Only after payment of ransom money by his sister Helene Gans, née Haas, who had meanwhile emigrated to the Netherlands, was he released on 25 Nov. 1938, on condition that he make swift efforts toward emigration. The note in his Jewish religious tax file card, "June 1939 Holland” and "U.B. ert. 13/6.39” refer to the planned official emigration to the Netherlands and the issuing of the tax clearance certificate (Unbedenklichkeitsbescheinigung) by state authorities.
However, according to other sources, he emigrated together with his brother Alfons Haas and their mother Ricka illegally to the Netherlands in Nov. 1938. His wife stated in her application for an exit permit that his month of departure had been Dec. 1938. His sister Helene Gans, on the other hand, said that the border had been crossed on 4 Jan. 1939 and that Harry Haas had been taken to the Dutch "Camp Reuver” refugee camp due to invalid documents. There he received several visits from his sister, who probably also tried to get a visa for him.
In Aug. 1939, he was able to emigrate to Great Britain, where due to the worsening war situation he was arrested as an enemy alien in May 1940 and shipped to Australia, where he remained until 1946.
Even before Harry Haas emigrated to the British Isles (Aug. 1939), his wife Charlotte had applied for an exit permit to Britain for herself and her six-year-old daughter Ellen in Apr. 1939. The emigration forms with which lawyer Herbert Samson (1898–1945) at Grosse Theaterstrasse 34 was commissioned also included the statement that Harry Haas had departed for Britain in Dec. 1938. The couple had sold three complete sets of room furnishings, packed the rest of the furniture and clothing in three moving containers, insured them with 10,000 RM, and stored them in the warehouse of the Friedrich Wiese moving company in Hamburg-St. Pauli (at Schönstrasse 11) for the planned shipment to Great Britain. Whether the oil paintings of the painters Dirk and Bergmann were among them could not be ascertained from the emigration file.
From there, the freight agency Brasch & Rothenstein (owner: Harry W. Hamacher) took over the storage goods on 11 July 1939 to send them by ship to London – but this no longer came about. Allegedly, for air-raid protection reasons, the large transport crates were later removed from the Hamburg duty-free port and their contents auctioned off. Due to the fact that auction documents of the Nazi state could not be found, the Hamburg District Court refused compensation to the heirs of Harry Haas in 1953.
Charlotte Haas and daughter Ellen had liquidated the six-and-a-half-room apartment at Isestrasse 125 (Harvestehude) and had resided as subtenants with Conrad at Hagedornstrasse 49 on the second floor (Hamburg-Harvestehude) since Apr. 1939. The last letter addressed to Charlotte Haas, contained in her emigration file, came from the jeweler M. H. Wilkens & Söhne, who had sent her two letters on 18 July 1939, listing the value of the packed precious metal objects. Six weeks later, Nazi Germany invaded Poland. Emigration to Britain was out of the question by then.
In Oct. 1941, emigration of Jews from Nazi Germany was outlawed, and the Nazi regime began deporting Jews to the conquered states in Eastern Europe. On 18 Nov. 1941, Charlotte and Ellen Haas, together with sister-in-law Margot Haas and her son Michael, as well mother Henny Hirschfeldt, née Burchard, were deported from Hamburg to the Minsk Ghetto in occupied Belarus. None of them survived. In 1950, the Hamburg District Court (Amtsgericht) declared Margot and Michael Haas dead as of 8 May 1945. Charlotte Haas, née Fürst, and her daughter Ellen Haas are commemorated by Stolpersteine in front of Isestrasse 125.
Harry Haas last lived in London; during a visit to Hamburg, he died there on 25 May 1948. He was buried in the Netherlands in a grave beside of that of his mother.
Alfons' brother Leo Haas (born Dec. 4, 1896 in Borken) lived in his birthplace until 1937. Even before 1933, he worked as an authorized signatory in the family business Gebr. Haas & Co. In December 1937, he became co-owner of the now independent Hamburg branch. Two months after his marriage to Elisabeth (Liesl) Katz (born November 10, 1913 in Bielefeld), he moved in December 1937 to his wife's birthplace, some 120 km east of Borken. After the forced sale of the company (October 1938) and the "confiscation" of his passport ordered by the Hamburg police chief on August 2, 1938, Leo Haas emigrated illegally to the Netherlands, presumably together with Alfons Haas. According to the Bielefeld registry office, their destination was Gennep, south of Nijmegen, near the German border. In January 1940, Leo Haas managed to emigrate to the USA. There he worked as a "veneer worker" and applied for U.S. citizenship in April 1940. Two different versions exist regarding the emigration of his wife. In 1941, their son Lawrence Benjamin Haas was born in Jefferson/Kentucky. In 1949, the family business was transferred back to Leo Haas, which was continued after his death (1953) until 1963 by members of the Haas (USA) and Gans (USA and Netherlands) families.
His cousin Max Haas (born on 16 Apr. 1895 in Borken), his wife Lilli Haas, and their son Manfred Haas are commemorated by Stolpersteine at Mittelweg 29 (Rotherbaum), where the family lived from 1930 to 1941.
For his mother-in-law Henny Hirschfeldt, née Burchard (born on 3 Sept. 1880 in Neubukow/ Mecklenburg) a Stolperstein was laid in Grindelallee 88, where the Hirschfeldt couple had lived as owners until the repression-related sale in 1936.
For his sister Erna Nachmann, née Haas, her husband Hugo and their daughter Hannelore, Stolpersteine were laid in Karlsruhe in 2012 at Reinhold-Frank-Str. 24.
Translator: Erwin Fink/ Changes: Beate Meyer
Kindly supported by the Hermann Reemtsma Stiftung, Hamburg.
Stand: March 2022
© Björn Eggert
Quellen: Staatsarchiv Hamburg (StaH) 213-13 (Landgericht Hamburg, Wiedergutmachung), 13114 (Jewish Trust Corporation für Margot Haas geb. Hirschfeld, Michael Haas, Henny Hirschfeld geb. Burchard, Hausrat); StaH 213-13 (Landgericht Hamburg, Wiedergutmachung), 2728 (Gebr. Haas & Co.); StaH 213-13 (Landgericht Hamburg, Wiedergutmachung), 2730 (Alfons Haas und Harry Haas, Wohnungseinrichtungen); StaH 221-11 (Staatskommissar für die Entnazifizierung), I (B) 9437 (Reinhold Lofink); StaH 221-11 (Staatskommissar für die Entnazifizierung), 43479 (Rudolf Ulrich); StaH221-11 (Entnazifizierung), L 1331 (Dr. Walter Klaas); StaH 231-7 (Handelsregister), A 1 Band 170 (Gebr. Haas & Co, HR A 37936); StaH 231-7 (Handelsregister), A 1 Band 184 (Gebr. Haas & Co./ Ulrich, Lofink& Co., HR A 41335); StaH 314-15 (Oberfinanzpräsident), F 851 (Charlotte Haas); StaH 314-15 (Oberfinanzpräsident), FVg 8996 (Alfons Haas, Harry Haas); StaH 332-5 (Standesämter), 13628 u. 24/1931 (Heiratsregister 1931, Alfons Haas u. Margot Hirschfeldt); StaH 332-8 (Meldewesen), Hausmeldekartei, Werderstraße 63 (Dr. Walter Klaas); StaH 351-11 (Amt für Wiedergutmachung), 13208 (Alfons u. Harry Haas in Firma Gebr. Haas & Co); StaH 351-11 (Amt für Wiedergutmachung), 13262 (Helene Gans geb. Haas); StaH 522-1 (Jüdische Gemeinden), 992b (Kultussteuerkartei der Deutsch-Israelitischen Gemeinde Hamburg), Alfons Haas, Harry Haas, Max Haas; Stadtarchiv Bielefeld (Meldekartei Bielefeld-Mittefür Leo Haas; Standesamt Personenstandsregister Eheschließung Haas/ Katz 2.10.1937; Hausbuch Lessingstr. 3 Benno u. Laura Katz mit Kindern Willi, Gertrud u. Elisabeth); Stadtarchiv Borken/Westfalen, Recherchen von Dr. Norbert Fasse (Familie Haas); Stadtarchiv Kassel, Einwohnermeldekarte (Harry Haas, Hohenzollernstraße 8 bei Hammerschlag); Gedenkstätte und Museum Sachsenhausen (Harry Haas, 11.11.1938–25.11.1938); Gedenkstätte Herinneringscentrum Kamp Westerbork (Orte und Daten der Internierungen von Alfons Haas); Handelskammer Hamburg, Handelsregisterinformationen (Gebr. Haas & Co, HR A 37936 und HR A 41335; J.H. Dubbers & Hempell, HR A 49492); Hamburger Börsenfirmen, Hamburg 1935, S. 187 (J. H. Dubbers & Hempell, gegr. 1843, Inhaber Paul Friedrich Meyer, Vierländerstr. 261-65, Ausländische Hölzer), S. 295 (Gebr. Haas & Cie. Zweigniederlassung Hamburg, eingetragen 1933, Inh. Moses Haas, Jonas Haas, Harry Haas, Max Haas, Alfons Haas); Gedenkbuch Bundesarchiv Koblenz (Internetseite), Alfons Haas, Henny Hirschfeldt geb. Burchard; Staatsarchiv Hamburg (Hrsg.), Hamburger jüdische Opfer des Nationalsozialismus, Gedenkbuch, Hamburg 1995 (Margot Haas geb. Hirschfeldt, Max Haas, Lilly Haas geb. Weichselbaum, Manfred Haas); Gedenkbuch für die Karlsruher Juden (Internet), Erna Nachmann geb. Haas (mit Bild); Jüdischer Friedhof Borken (Gräber von Moses Haas 1862-1936, Friedrich Haas 1888-1903, Dr. Martin Haas 1893-1931, Jonas Haas 1865-1942, Berta Haas 1871-1938); Adressbuch Hamburg (Alfons Haas) 1932, 1933; Adressbuch Hamburg (Harry bzw. H. Haas) 1931–1934, 1936, 1938, 1939; Adressbuch Altona (Rainweg 32), 1928, 1929, 1931 (Gebr. Haas); Adressbuch Hamburg (Gebr. Haas & Co.) 1962 (Billstr. 156-158, Holzimport, Inhaber Carl H. Gans/ USA u. Hans F. Gans/Niederlande); Telefonbuch Hamburg 1931 (Gebr. Haas & Co, Rainweg 32, Inhaber Alfons Haas, Harry Haas, Max Haas); Frank Bajohr, "Arisierung" in Hamburg, Hamburg 1998, S. 358 (Gebr. Haas & Cie., Furnierhandel, Billstr. 158); Hartmut Bringmann, Erich Haas – Ein jüdisches Leben in Borken, 75 Seiten, 2017; Maike Bruhns, Geflohen aus Deutschland, Hamburger Künstler im Exil 1933–1945, Bremen 2007, S. 167 (Exil Niederlande); Michael Buddrus/ Sigrid Fritzlar, Juden in Mecklenburg 1845-1945, Band 2 Kurzbiografien, Schwerin 2019, S. 284/285 (Eduard Hirschfeldt, Henny Hirschfeldt geb. Burchard); Mechtild Oenning u.a., Leben und Schicksal der Juden in Borken, Borken 1989, S. 81 (Foto u. Militärdienstbescheinigung von Alfons Haas); Ursula Randt, Die Talmud Tora Schule in Hamburg 1805 bis 1942, Hamburg 2005, S. 13 (Michael Haas, Ellen Haas); www.tracingthepast.org (Volkszählung 1939) Margot Haas, Michael Haas, Henny Hirschfeldt geb. Burchard; www.stolpersteine-hamburg.de (Charlotte Haas, Ellen Haas, Max Haas, Henny Hirschfeldt geb. Burchard, Clara Lehmann, Gertrud Weinstein geb. Samuel verw. Hirschfeldt, Herbert Samson); https://archief.amsterdam/indexen/persons (Meldekarten Alfons Haas, Leo Haas, Abraham Gans, Hugo Nachmann); https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liste_der_Stolpersteine_in_Zeitz (Siegfried Fürst 1889–1942); www.ancestry.de (Leo Haas: Passagierliste der SS Zaandam 20.1.1940, Liste der in den USA ankommenden Passagiere, Formular US-Einwanderung 20.4.1940, US-Geburtsindex 1941, US-Sozialversicherungsindex 1953, Abbildung Grabstein auf dem "Gates of Prayers Cemetery" in New Orleans).