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Auguste Bentheim (née Israel) * 1853
Hallerstraße 42 (Eimsbüttel, Harvestehude)
Auguste Bentheim, née Israel, born on 26 May 1853 in Hamburg, deported 9 June 1943 to Theresienstadt, died there on 30 July 1943
Auguste Gutel Israel was born on 26 May 1853 in Hamburg as the daughter of Adolph (Abraham) Israel (1814–1883), a merchant born in Schwerin, and Emma Israel, née Levy (1821–1894), born in Copenhagen. Some years before her, sister Julie Gunilde Israel (born on 7 Aug. 1850 in Hamburg) and some years after her, brother Max Adolph Israel (on 16 July 1858 in Hamburg) had been born. Adolph and Emma Israel lived from 1863 to 1883 and in 1894, respectively, in a small house at Grindelallee 128 (in Hamburg-Rotherbaum), which according to the 1880 directory belonged to them. Until 1871, Rotherbaum was an area outside the city limits. With the lifting of the gate barrier (Torsperre) in 1860/61, the classification as a suburb in 1871 and as a district in 1894, construction projects and land speculation as well as the new construction and extension of roads gradually began to change the character of this area.
Auguste’s father Abraham ("Adolph”) Hertz Elias Israel (born on 10 Jan. 1814 in Schwerin), was the son of the merchant and officially registered "protected Jew” ("Schutzjude”) (with sovereign residence permit and permission to trade) Her(t)z Elias Israel (1765–1829 in Schwerin) and his wife Sara Sophie Israel, née Isaac (1771–1847 in Schwerin). Adolph Israel had moved to Hamburg in 1840 and had acquired Hamburg civic rights (Bürgerrecht, i.e., citizenship) in 1849. His brother Elias Hertz Israel (born on 18 Jan. 1808) had moved to Hamburg a few years before him. In 1843, one year after the Hamburg fire, Adolph Israel and Benjamin Ahron Simon (1814–1882) founded Simon, Israel & Co., "Lager von englische Manufacturwaaren en gros,” a wholesale company dealing in English yard goods, in the Hanseatic city. Thirty-six years later (in 1879), he retired from the company and his professional life.
We know nothing about his daughter Auguste’s childhood, education, and training. In 1873, she married Berlin-born Siegfried Bentheim (1842–1928), who had lived in Hamburg since 1863 and was an independent export merchant there since 1868. The civil marriage took place on 29 Nov. 1873; the wedding ceremony on 11 Jan. 1874 in the Israelite Temple was conducted by preacher Max Saenger (1821–1882).
The married couple had two sons, Ferdinand Ernst Bentheim (born in 1874) and Hugo Bentheim (born in 1878). The obstetrician by the name of Wolff and the midwife Wilhelmine Geschinski (of Deichstrasse 12) were present at the home birth of the firstborn. The residential addresses of the Bentheim family were Grosse Bleichen 76 (1874–1877), Grindelallee 115 on the third floor (1878–1880), Hallerstrasse 44 on the third floor (1881–1896), Hallerstrasse 42 on the ground floor (1897–1914), and Hansastrasse 56 on the second floor (1915–1928). With their location in an upper-class district, these addresses point to a high standard of living. This impression is also confirmed by a photograph of the two sons in select stylish clothing with elegant children’s boots and collar bowknots, taken in a photo studio around 1882/1883.
From 1868 to 1876, Siegfried Bentheim (born on 1 Aug. 1842 in Berlin, parents: Naumann Ferdinand Bentheim and Tobine, née Levy) was co-owner of the Hamburg cloth warehouse Susmann & Co. and Susmann & Bentheim, respectively, with business addresses at Admiralitätsstrasse 3 (1869–1872) and Neuer Wall 53 (1873–1876). From Feb. 1876 onward, he ran his own export business for textiles and hats under the name of S. Bentheim. Hermann Elias, owner of the Gebr. Elias linen company (at Neuer Wall 53) was the guarantor of his first passport in 1874. In the years 1880 and 1881, Siegfried Bentheim spent some time on business in Russia, also traveling to Britain and France for professional reasons. He had joined the Patriotic Society (Patriotische Gesellschaft) in 1910, a non-profit, non-governmental institution "for the promotion of the arts and useful trades” in Hamburg that had existed since 1765. The 850 or so exclusively male members at the time included predominantly successful entrepreneurs and academics.
The business addresses of S. Bentheim were Brodschrangen 5 (1877–1880), Schauenburgerstrasse 38 on the second floor (1881–1882), Neuer Wall 78 house no. 4 (1884–1888), Graskeller 16 (1889–1906), and Neuer Wall 95 (1907–1910). Since 1911, the company’s address was Neuer Wall 72/74 ("Paulsen-Haus”); in this large office building, constructed in 1907/1908, other companies from the textile industry had rented business premises, for instance, on the ground floor Gebr. Hirschfeld Mäntelfabrik, a coat manufacturer (founded in 1893) and Ferdinand Bode Besatzartikel, specializing in trimmings; on the raised ground floor Max Wolfson cloths and linings en gros (founded in 1910), as well as Gaase & Co. leather and cloth gloves en gros (founded in 1889); on the second floor, S. Bentheim; and on the third floor, Johannes Unland silk goods representative (founded in 1888).
In Apr. 1919, 77-year-old Siegfried Bentheim retired from professional life without being able to pass on his company to one of his two sons. At this point, he was listed for the first time as a retiree in the 1920 Hamburg directory. Siegfried Bentheim died in 1928 and he was buried in the Hamburg-Ohlsdorf Jewish Cemetery. His death was reported to the relevant records office by the merchant Arthur Martienssen (1867–1942), who had been residing at Hansastrasse 56 on the third floor since 1915.
According to oral family tradition, Auguste and Siegfried Bentheim’s son Hugo (born on 27 Jan. 1878) is said to have "run away” after attending secondary school and doing a commercial apprenticeship, with a woman (not befitting his rank). His move to Berlin in 1898 was recorded in Hamburg’s register of residents; his one-year military service obligation was deferred until 1901. Two days after the beginning of the First World War, on 3 Aug. 1914, he married the housekeeper Gertrud Katharina Alma Else Zitzmann (born on 20 Dec. 1888) in Berlin-Friedenau. In the course of the mobilization, Hugo Bentheim received his conscription order to join the Imperial Army in Berlin. He was killed on 30 Mar. 1915 as a member of the Landwehr [territorial reserve] Infantry Regiment No. 3 during a battle at Zwikiele (Russia), by a shot in the head.
Their son Ferdinand Bentheim (born on 15 Oct. 1874) finished high school in 1893, was discharged from military service in 1895 as "unfit,” completed a commercial apprenticeship and was temporarily employed as a merchant in Argentina (in 1899) and Britain (in 1906). In 1906, he married in Berlin-Wilmersdorf Margarethe "Grete” Hiller (born on 13 June 1877 in Breslau [today Wroclaw in Poland]), the daughter of the merchant Pinto Hiller (1839–1880) and Martha Hiller, née Reinert (1850–1916), who lived with her mother in Berlin since 1881. The groom resided in Manchester (at 27 Warrickroad) at the time of the wedding, where he worked as a buyer for an American company. Instead of the deceased father of the bride, the bride’s stepfather, Daniel Timmendorfer (1847–1909, residing in Berlin-Wilmersdorf at Uhlandstrasse 151), served as the witness to the marriage.
The Bentheim couple lived in the northwest of England from 1906 to 1914. Their sons Paul Hans (born on 19 July 1907 in Manchester) and Martin Edwin (born on 25 Aug. 1909 in Manchester) were also born there. Ferdinand Bentheim was interned in various British camps as an "enemy alien” at the beginning of the First World War and was released in 1915 due to tuberculosis as part of an exchange of prisoners. In Dec. 1915, he traveled back to Hamburg via the neutral Netherlands and moved in Mar. 1916 from Hamburg (Hansastrasse 56) to Berlin-Wilmersdorf (Nürnbergerplatz 3 and Holsteinische Strasse 44).
Due to his deteriorating state of health, he was taken to a sanatorium in Berlin-Lankwitz (Viktoriastrasse 57 – today Leonorenstrasse), where he died on 25 Jan. 1917. His grave is located at the Berlin-Weissensee Jewish Cemetery.
In 1915, the wife had been compelled to leave the British Isles with her sons, who subsequently attended the Bismarck-Gymnasium in Berlin-Wilmersdorf. After the early death of Ferdinand Bentheim, his widow worked as an accountant and translator until she married the director of the Berlin State Library (Staatsbibliothek) Hermann Hülle (born on 26 Aug. 1870 in Berlin) in 1928. Before the marriage, she was baptized and she converted to the Lutheran denomination of her husband. After the retirement of State Library Director Hülle, the married couple moved from Berlin-Wilmersdorf to Würzburg on 1 Oct. 1935. The residential addresses there were Schellingstrasse 13 (1935–1939), Mergentheimer Strasse 60 (in 1939), Winterleitenweg 24 g (1939–1941), and Steinbachtal 36 (1942).
Meanwhile, Auguste Bentheim remained in the six-and-a-half-room apartment at Hansastrasse 56 on the second floor until 1939, even after the death of her husband. The valuable furnishings included carpets, paintings, an extra cupboard containing silver objects and porcelain. In a special "linen room,” they "worked on the linen in the wintertime” – linen embroidery had become fashionable again in Germany from around 1870 onward. In 1961, the grandson Martin Bentheim could no longer provide the Hamburg Restitution Office ("Amt für Wiedergutmachung”) with any details on the equipment. Twenty-four years after his last visit, his assessment of the furnishings was as follows: "On the walls hung quite precious paintings by recognized masters. The floors were covered with genuine Persian carpets. My grandmother owned a lot of silver items, which she often showed to me. I still remember very well a set of silver cutlery for 24 persons. My grandmother had a special cupboard in which the silverware was kept.”
The Nazi state gradually and systematically seized their assets and valuables. It had enacted laws to give the looting the trimmings of legality A state-ordered freeze of assets usually served to eliminate disposal of the checking account (except for an approved fixed "allowance”) and of the securities account; special taxes were levied on large parts of the respective assets. In the case of Auguste Bentheim, no corresponding file of the Chief Finance Administrator (Oberfinanzpräsident) exists, but such a procedure can nevertheless be assumed.
The "Law on Tenancies with Jews” ("Gesetz über die Mietverhältnisse mit Juden”) dated 30 Apr. 1939 deprived Jews of tenant protection. Their concentration in buildings declared "Jews’ houses” ("Judenhäuser”) was prepared by local housing departments and Gestapo offices. The 86-year-old Auguste Bentheim had to leave her apartment on 1 July 1939 (according to the house registration file) or 6 Sept. 1939 (according to the Jewish religious tax [Kultussteuer] card file). As a replacement, she was assigned a room at Haynstrasse 10 on the third floor. It was not considered a "Jews’ house.”
Auguste Bentheim lived there as a subtenant with the textile goods representative Franz Hirsch (1885–1951), his wife Charlotte Hirsch, née Heicke (1897–1971), and their two daughters Elsbeth (born on 5 Nov. 1920 in Hamburg), who worked as a shorthand typist, and Edith (born on 6 Mar. 1924). The Hirsch family, who belonged to the Lutheran Church, had only moved into the six-and-a-half- room apartment on 31 May 1939; they had previously lived at Cäcilienstrasse 10 (Hamburg-Winterhude). The Nazi race criteria classified them as living in a "privileged mixed marriage” ("privilegierte Mischehe”), but Franz Hirsch was nevertheless deported to the Fuhlsbüttel concentration camp for three weeks. Two other subtenants were accommodated in the apartment at the same time as Auguste Bentheim: Lina Bernstein, née Gattel (born on 27 May 1869 in Sommerfeld/Lower Lusatia), from Eppendorfer Landstrasse 24 and Gertrud Brühl, née Treumann (born on 20 May 1870 in Waaren/Mecklenburg), from Haynstrasse 15 – presumably a sister-in-law of Arthur Martienssen.
The whereabouts of the extensive furnishings of the Bentheims from Hansastrasse 56 remain unknown. In the 1941 Hamburg directory, 56 new tenants were listed in all apartments of the Hansastrasse building as compared with 1939. In the Bentheim apartment on the second floor, Captain Erich Eggebrecht (born on 11 Apr. 1899) had already been listed in 1940, a man who had been transferred from Kiel to the Hamburg I Armament Command (Wehrwirtschaftsstelle) in Feb. 1939; unfortunately, his personal file does not contain a detailed Hamburg address. Lieutenant Julius Hentschel had moved to the fourth floor in 1941. No new tenants were recorded for the ground floor apartment of the doctor Raphael Möller (born on 8 Nov. 1895 in Hamburg), who emigrated to the USA in 1939, and the widow Sarah Möller.
In Apr. 1941, Auguste Bentheim had to move from Haynstrasse 10 to Hochallee according to the house registration file. Her next addresses, also not voluntarily chosen, were Klosterallee 24 with Marcus and Laufgraben 37 in the Paulinenstift (a "Jews’ house”).
On 9 June 1943, at the age of 90, Auguste Bentheim was deported to the Theresienstadt Ghetto from the "Jews’ house” at Beneckestrasse 6, where she had been committed for deportation. There she died seven weeks later, on 30 July 1943, in the "infirmary room” ("Siechenzimmer”), building L 315, room 09, of pneumonia and cardiac insufficiency, as stated in the official death certificate.
In the course of restitution proceedings, she was declared dead as of 8 May 1945 by the Hamburg District Court (Amtsgericht) in 1957.
The Stolperstein for Auguste Bentheim was not laid in front of the last freely chosen residence at Hansastrasse 56, as this part of the street was redesigned with the Grindel skyscrapers and green spaces in the course of the post-war development. Therefore, the building chosen for the Stolperstein laid in Nov. 2018 is the one at Hallerstrasse 42, which had been occupied by the Bentheims for 17 years.
How did Auguste Bentheim’s relatives fare?
Her daughter-in-law Margarethe Hülle lived with her second husband in Würzburg. In Oct. 1937, the Gestapo examined for the first time the Jewish family background of Margarete Hülle based on a denunciation by SA-Obersturmführer (an SA rank equivalent to first lieutenant) Schug. Through her marriage to her Christian husband, Margarete Hülle was not subject to all the persecution regulations against Jews issued by the Nazi regime. Hermann Hülle died on 18 Apr. 1940 in Würzburg. Thus, Margarete Hülle lost the protective status of a "mixed marriage” and she was then exposed to the general anti-Jewish persecution measures.
In order to be able to keep the previous apartment, she rented out a room. Her second lodger, Sergeant Erwin Steingräber (born in 1920), denounced her to the Gestapo in Mar. 1941 for renting to a "German-blooded” man and for correspondence with her sons in enemy Britain. The protocol noted, "He asks to proceed against the Hülle woman accordingly. The very same had, as he had learned, rented out the room again as of 1 Apr. 1941 and, in addition, she also maintained friendly relations with German national comrades [Volksgenossen].”
The Gestapo interrogated her and threatened her with imprisonment in a camp in case of recurrence. As a deterrent, the Gestapo staff member had the interrogation protocol signed together with a menacing final sentence: "I note that as of 5 Apr. 41, I am no longer allowed to rent rooms to German-blooded people and that if I do not comply with this state police requirement, I will have to reckon with being sent to a concentration camp.” Another denunciation, signed with "The neighborhood. P.p. Schmitt” ("Die Nachbarschaft. i.A. Schmit”), presumably dating from May 1942, concerned the lack of a "Jews’ star” on her clothes, the forbidden use of the streetcar, and her membership in the National Socialist People’s Welfare authority (Nationalsozialistische Volkswohlfahrt – NSV), which she had joined together with her husband in 1934.
This letter of denunciation ended with a desire to "take her where she belongs.” The corresponding note from the Gestapo branch office in Würzburg to the next higher Gestapo office in Nuremberg on 4 June 1942 read laconically, "With regard to the fact that the Hülle woman is already old and will be evacuated in the near future, I have refrained from imposing state police measures.” Margarethe Hülle was deported from Würzburg to the Theresienstadt Ghetto on 23 Sept. 1942, where she perished on 5 Apr. 1943, at the age of 65.
Auguste Bentheim’s brother Max Israel (born in 1858), after attending the "Lehranstalt” (Realschule, a secondary school up to grade 10, at Hohe Bleichen 38) run by Dr. phil. Wichard F. Lange (1826–1884), had completed a commercial apprenticeship and from 1878 to 1888, he was a trainee and later a buyer at the Heinssen & Martienssen company in Manchester, England. He was then the owner of the Stapel & Israel "Ausfuhrhandel nach Übersee” (export trade overseas), an export company (at Grosse Bleichen 31, since 1929 in the residential building at Hochallee 104) that had been founded in 1888 and was forcibly deleted from the company register in 1941. In 1890, he had acquired Hamburg civic rights (Bürgerrecht, i.e., citizenship).
Max Israel suffered a stroke after the deportation of his sister Auguste in 1943 and died of paralysis in 1947. Since 1891, he was married to Louise, née Magnus (born on 31 Jan. 1873 in Hamburg, the daughter of the physician Otto Magnus, 1837–1902, and Franziska Magnus, née Kettenbach, 1853–1911, both of the Christian faith). Louise Israel, née Magnus (1873–1963), had been taught at home for two years and she had then attended the school run by Dr. Theodor Zimmermann at ABC-Strasse 56 for eight years; in 1889, she was confirmed. The married couple had three children: Adolph (born in 1892), Erna (born in 1893), and Emma (born in 1898). Son Adolph Otto Israel (born on 9 Sept. 1892), a lieutenant in the First World War, had been awarded the Iron Cross first and second class. From 1919 to 1924, he worked as an authorized signatory in his father’s company. Adolph Israel had been brought up as a Christian, but the racial ideology of the Nazis nevertheless classified him as a Jew, which meant that he too was subject to the exclusions, deprivations of rights, and plundering by the anti-Semitic Nazi state. Adolph Israel committed suicide on 23 Jan. 1941, four days after the divorce from his non-Jewish wife.
A Stolperstein was laid for him at Werderstrasse 49 (Harvestehude).
Auguste’s niece Alice Bendheim, née Israel (born on 5 July 1875 in Hamburg), the daughter of her sister Julie Gunilde Israel, née Israel (1850–1924), was deported on 19 July 1942 to the Theresienstadt Ghetto and on 29 Sept. 1942 to the Treblinka extermination camp, where she was murdered.
A Stolperstein in front of the house at Hochallee 104 (Harvestehude), which Max Israel had acquired in 1907, commemorates them.
Auguste Bentheim’s grandsons emigrated to Britain: In 1933, Martin Bentheim and in 1935, Paul Bentheim/Benton (1907–1988) emigrated and survived the Holocaust.
Translator: Erwin Fink
Kindly supported by the Hermann Reemtsma Stiftung, Hamburg.
Stand: June 2020
© Björn Eggert
Quellen: Staatsarchiv Hamburg (StaH) StaH 231-7 (Handelsregister), A 1 Band 4 (S. Bentheim, HR A 914; Stapel & Israel, HR A 1083); StaH 231-7 (Handelsregister), A 1 Band 44 (Arthur Martienssen, HR A 10825); StaH 331-5 (Polizeibehörde – unnatürliche Todesfälle), 1941/510 (Adolph Otto Israel); StaH 332-3 (Zivilstandsaufsicht 1866-1875), B Nr. 105 (Heiratsregister 1873, Siegfried Bentheim u. Auguste Israel, Nr. G 698); StaH 332-3 (Zivilstandsaufsicht 1866–1875), A Nr. 187 (Geburtsregister 1874, Ernst Ferdinand Bentheim, Nr. 7493); StaH 332-5 (Standesämter), 8927 u. 260/1878 (Geburtsregister 1878, Hugo Bentheim); StaH 332-5 (Standesämter), 7785 u. 2391/1882 (Sterberegister 1882, Benjamin Ahron Simon); StaH 332-5 (Standesämter), 7787 u. 186/1883 (Sterberegister 1883, Adolph/Abraham Israel); StaH 332-5 (Standesämter), 8551 u. 332/1891 (Heiratsregister 1891, Max Adolph Israel u. Louise Magnus); StaH 332-5 (Standesämter), 8173 u. 46/1892 (Geburtsregister 1892, Adolph Otto Israel); StaH 332-5 (Standesämter), 7886 u. 1067/1894 (Sterberegister 1894, Emma Israel geb. Levy); StaH 332-5 (Standesämter), 8077 u. 12/1924 (Sterberegister 1924, Julie Gunilde Israel geb. Israel); StaH 332-5 (Standesämter), 8094 u. 616/1928 (Sterberegister 1928, Siegfried Bentheim); StaH 332-5 (Standesämter), 8173 u. 46/1941 (Sterberegister 1941, Adolph Otto Israel); StaH 332-7 (Staatsangehörigkeitsaufsicht), Bürgerrecht, Ad. Israel (1849 Bürgerrecht Nr. 614, geb. in Schwerin, 35 Jahre alt, Kaufmann), Max Ad. Israel (1890 Bürgerrecht Nr. 17616, geb. 16.7.1858, Kaufmann), Georg Friedrich Theodor Bentheim (1860 Bürgerrecht Nr. 919, geb. 4.4.1828 in Hamburg, Roleau-Maler); StaH 332-8 (Meldewesen), Alte Einwohnermeldekartei 1892–1925, K 4226 (Hugo Bentheim, Ernst Ferdinand Bentheim, Margarete Bentheim geb. Hiller; Theodor Bentheim geb. 4.4.1828 Hamburg); StaH 332-8 (Meldewesen), A 51 Film B 2353 (Hausmeldekartei Haynstraße 10); StaH 332-8 (Meldewesen), A 24 Band 45 (Reisepassprotokoll 1874, Siegfried Bentheim Nr. 15); StaH 332-8 (Meldewesen), A 24 Band 49 (Reisepassprotokoll 1880, Siegfried Bentheim Nr. 64); StaH 332-8 (Meldewesen), A 24 Band 50 (Reisepassprotokoll 1880, Siegfried Bentheim Nr. 718); StaH 332-8 (Meldewesen), A 24 Band 51 (Reisepassprotokoll 1881, Siegfried Bentheim Nr. 717); StaH 342-2 (Militär-Ersatzbehörden 1856-1920), D II 11 Band 1 (Max Adolf Israel); StaH 342-2 (Militär-Ersatzbehörden 1856–1920), D II 75 Band 1 (Ernst Ferdinand Bentheim); StaH 342-2 (Militär-Ersatzbehörden 1856-1920), D II 91 Band 1 (Hugo Bentheim); StaH 351-11 (Amt für Wiedergutmachung), 2266 (Louise Israel geb. Magnus); StaH 351-11 (Amt für Wiedergutmachung), 32384 (Auguste Bentheim geb. Israel); StaH 351-11 (Amt für Wiedergutmachung), 1131 (Arthur Martienssen); StaH 351-11 (Amt für Wiedergutmachung), 19282 (Charlotte Hirsch geb. Heicke); StaH 522-1 (Jüdische Gemeinden), 992b (Kultussteuerkartei der Deutsch-Israelitischen Gemeinde Hamburg), Auguste u. Siegfried Bentheim; Jüdischer Friedhof Hamburg-Ohlsdorf, Internetdatenbank (Siegfried Bentheim, Grab S4-143; Julie Gunhilde Israel geb. Israel, Grab A10-53); Centrum Judaicum, Beisetzungsregister Jüdischer Friedhof Berlin-Weissensee, Ferdinand Bentheim (Feld T, Abt. IV, Reihe 13); Stadtarchiv Schwerin, Volkszählungsliste Schwerin 1819 (Haus Nr. 655, Schmiedestraße 15, Kaufmann Herz Israel), Vormundschafts- und Nachlassgericht Nr. I-46 (1829 Vormund Wolf Israel, 1836 Vormund Samson Elias Israel); Staatsarchiv Würzburg, Gestapostelle Würzburg G 2342 (Margarete Hülle, 1937-1942); Nationalarchiv Prag, Ghetto Terezin/Theresienstadt, Todesfallanzeige Auguste Bentheim; Bundesarchiv Militärarchiv, BArch, PERS 6/9826 (Personalakte Erich Eggebrecht); Bundesarchiv Koblenz, Gedenkbuch, Opfer der Verfolgung der Juden unter nationalsozialistischer Gewaltherrschaft in Deutschland 1933–1945, Internetdatenbank (Lina Bertha Bernstein geb. Gattel, Gertrud Brühl geb. Treumann, Margarete Hülle geb. Hiller); Handelskammer Hamburg, Handelsregisterinformationen (S. Bentheim, HR A 914; Stapel & Israel, HR A 1083); Hamburger Börsen-Adressbuch 1885 (S. Bentheim, Börsenst. v. Pf 3); Hamburger Börsenfirmen, Hamburg 1910, S. 49 (S. Bentheim), S. 199 (Gaase & Co), S. 424 (Arthur Martienssen), S. 633 (Stapel & Israel, Kaufmannshaus), S. 671 (Johannes Unland), S. 722 (Max Wolfson); Hamburger Börsenfirmen, Hamburg 1926, S. 672 (Arthur Martienssen), S. 991 (Stapel & Israel, Kaufmannshaus); Hamburger Börsenfirmen, Hamburg 1935, S. 376 (Franz Hirsch, Vertr., gegr. 1910, Cäcilienstr. 10), S. 550 (Arthur Martienssen); Hamburger Adressbuch (Simon, Israel & Co.) 1844, 1845; Hamburger Adressbuch (Adolph Israel) 1850, 1857, 1860, 1862, 1863, 1865, 1867, 1869; Hamburger Adressbuch (Susmann & Bentheim) 1869–1870, 1872–1876; Hamburger Adressbuch (Grindelallee 128) 1870, 1876, 1880, 1883; Hamburger Adressbuch (Hallerstraße 44) 1885, 1893; Hamburger Adressbuch (Hallerstraße 42) 1898, 1914; Hamburger Adressbuch (Hansastraße 56) 1939–1941; Hamburger Adressbuch (Bentheim) 1874–1878, 1880–1885, 1887–1890, 1895–1897, 1900, 1906–1908, 1910–1916, 1918–1920, 1927; Hamburger Adressbuch (Stapel & Israel), 1925, 1928–1930; Hamburger Adressbuch (Arthur Martienssen), 1915–1916, 1918, 1920, 1924, 1932, 1934–1938; Jahrbuch der Hamburgischen Gesellschaft zur Beförderung der Künste und nützlichen Gewerbe (Patriotische Gesellschaft) 1910 bis 1912, Hamburg 1913, S. 54 (Siegfried Bentheim); Reichsbund jüdischer Frontsoldaten, Ein Gedenkbuch, Die jüdischen Gefallenen des deutschen Heeres, der deutschen Marine und der deutschen Schutztruppen 1914–1918, Hamburg 1932, S. 132 (Bentheim, Hugo, 6/L.I.R.3, gestorben 30.5.1915); Frank Bajohr, "Arisierung" in Hamburg, Hamburg 1998, S. 372 (Stapel & Israel, Hochallee 104); Frauke Steinhäuser, Stolpersteine in Hamburg Grindel II, Biografische Spurensuche, Hamburg 2017, S. 32 (Katasterplan des Grindelviertels 1900, ohne Hausnummern); Reiner Strätz, Biografisches Handbuch Würzburger Juden 1900–1945, Würzburg 1989, S. 275–276 (Margarete Hülle geb. Hiller); Anna von Villiez, Mit aller Kraft verdrängt, Entrechtung und Verfolgung "nicht arischer" Ärzte in Hamburg 1933 bis 1945, Hamburg 2009, S. 362/363 (Dr. Raphael Möller); https://www.geni.com/people/Valentin-Hiller/6000000031693160538 (Pinto Hiller, Martha Hiller, Daniel Timmendorfer, eingesehen 13.6.2018); www.tracingthepast.org (Volkszählung Mai 1939) Auguste Bentheim, Charlotte Hirsch geb. Heicke, Franz Hirsch, Hermann Hülle, Margarete Hülle geb. Hiller, Hugo und Gretchen Marcus, Arthur Martienssen; www.ancestry.de (Heiratsregister Nr. 442 Berlin-Wilmersdorf 1906, Ferdinand Bentheim und Margarete Hiller; Geburtsregister Nr. 754 Breslau 1876, Ernst Hiller; Heiratsregister Nr. 211/1914 Berlin-Friedenau, Hugo Bentheim u. Gertrud Katharina Alma Else Zitzmann; Sterberegister Nr. 255/1915 Berlin-Friedenau, Hugo Bentheim); www.stolpersteine-hamburg.de (Alice Bendheim geb. Israel); Informationen von D. B. (u.a. Foto von Auguste Bentheim, Lebenslauf Paul Bentheim).