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Gertrud Feibel (née Fürstenberg) * 1889
Hoheluftchaussee 91-93 (Eimsbüttel, Hoheluft-West)
Gertrud Feibel, née Fürstenberg, born on 21.3.1889 in Lauenburg/ Hinterpommern (today Lebork/ Poland), deported on 6.12.1941 to Riga/ Jungfernhof, murdered
Arnold Aron Feibel, born on 3.8.1873 in Schwetz/ West Prussia (today Swiecie/ Poland), deported on 6.12.1941 to Riga/ Jungfernhof, murdered
The merchant Arnold Aron Feibel grew up with his eight years older sister Paula (1865 - 1909) and his two years younger brother Georg (1875 - 1937 in Hamburg) in Schwetz on the Vistula, in former West Prussia. The parents of the three siblings were the Jewish merchant Louis Feibel and Sara, née Aronsohn, also born in Schwetz. Behind the village and the district of the same name, located almost 100 kilometers south of Gdansk/Poland (formerly Danzig), lay an eventful history. Depending on how wars had changed the affiliation, Schwetz belonged to the Kingdom of Prussia until 1920, then to Poland. At the time of Arnold Feibel's birth there were almost 5000 inhabitants living in Schwetz. Over the years (around 1890) more Jews settled in the town so that a synagogue could be built.
Arnold Feibel's future wife, Gertrud Fürstenberg, came from Lauenburg in Hinterpommern (today Lebork/Poland), about 30 kilometers from the Baltic Sea. Her parents, also Jewish, were the merchant David (1851 - 1902 in Lauenburg) and her mother Hedwig, née David, (1862 - 1942 in Theresienstadt), who came from Strasburg/Pomerania. Gertrud's siblings were also born in Lauenburg, Alice (1884 - 1943 in Auschwitz) and Martin (1886 - 1942 in Lauenburg). About 5300 inhabitants lived in the village around 1860, about 260 of them Jews. Until the middle of the 18th century, Jews paid an appropriate protection fee to the authorities for the right to stay. Barely a hundred years later, around 1850, a synagogue existed, located directly behind the Protestant church. Lauenburg continued to develop, so that twenty years later a railroad station was built, as a result of which new industries settled and the number of inhabitants increased.
We found no traces of how the future husband and wife spent their childhood and youth. Nor is it known how they met. However, Gertrud Fürstenberg and Arnold Aron Feibel were married in Lauenburg on January 24, 1910. A few months later, in November, the parents rejoiced at the birth of their daughter Kaethe (1910- 1942 in Raasiku/ Estonia).
At some point the small family decided to leave their homeland. Perhaps Arnold's brother, who had been living in Hamburg for some time, gave the impetus for this. Georg Feibel, also a merchant, had been a member of the Jewish Community since April 1919. In the summer of that year he married his fiancée Frances Auguste Friedheim (1896 - 1998 USA), who came from a Hamburg merchant family. On July 22, 1919, the Feibel family, who had come to Hamburg, registered as new members of the Jewish Community in Hamburg.
They found suitable accommodation in Hamburg-Uhlenhorst in the street Immenhof, which was already a very good residential area at that time, where they lived until the beginning of the 1930s. It is not known why they moved to Hoheluftchaussee 93 in 1932/1933. Perhaps financial reasons forced them to do so, due to the worldwide economic crisis at the end of the 1920s to the beginning of the 1930s.
It is possible that a contact with the future Wolff family-in-law developed at that time. Let's take a look back, to August 24, 1900 in Hamburg. On that day, Ruben Hartwig Wolff (1869 - 1943) from Kiel married Jenny Bromberger (1875 - 1963) from Hamburg. The couple first lived in Kiel, where their three children Hartwig (1901), Marga (1903- 1987) and Ralf (1904) were born. Four years after Ralf's birth, the family left the city on the fjord and lived in Hamburg, Wrangelstraße in district Hoheluft-West.
Then the time had come, on May 4, 1932 Kaethe Feibel and Ralf Wolff were married in Hamburg. At that time it was already clear that the young couple would live in Prague/ Czechoslovakia (today the Czech Republic) for professional reasons, in addition the clouds were gradually darkening for Jews in the German Reich. When the National Socialists came to power on January 30, 1933, they put their anti-Jewish policies into practice over the years.
Two months later, the families announced the birth of their granddaughter Marion in Prague on March 27, 1933. We do not know how intensive the contact between the families was, given the distance.
A few days later, on April 1, 1933, the first major organized action against Jews in the German Reich took place with the Boycott Day against Jewish stores, department stores and measures against doctors and lawyers. With this, the rulers set a visible sign of what "future" lay ahead of them. In the course of the following years, almost everything that had made life worth living was forbidden to them. They were not allowed to go to the movies, to ride the streetcars, or own pets - just a small selection of the prohibitions.
The Feibel couple lived at Hoheluftchaussee 93 until their deportation. Gertrud and Arnold Aron Feibel received the deportation order to Riga on December 6, 1941. They were deported to the subcamp of the ghetto at Jungfernhof, where their trace is lost. Presumably they were murdered there.
What traces were found to the members of the Feibel and Wolff families:
Kaethe, Ralf and Marion Wolff were deported from Prague to Theresienstadt Ghetto on December 10, 1941, and from there on September 1, 1942, with a transport of about 1000 people to Raasiku in Estonia, where they arrived after a five-day journey. The Wolff family was among the 900 deportees who were taken to the distant place (Kalevi-Liiva) where a firing squad was already waiting for them. In memory of Kaethe, Ralf and Marion Wolff three Stolpersteine are planned in front of their last address in Prague.
The parents of the Fürstenberg children, Hedwig Fürstenberg, née David, (1862 in Strasburg/ West Prussia - 1942 in Theresienstadt) and David Fürstenberg (1851 - 1902 in Lauenburg/ Pomerania) lived in Berlin. Hedwig Fürstenberg was deported to Theresienstadt on September 14, 1942, her date of death was September 26, 1942.
The oldest sister Alice Lesser, née Fürstenberg (1884 in Lauenburg - 1943 in Auschwitz) married Lesser Schoeps (1866 in Neuenburg/ West Prussia - 1943 in Auschwitz), they lived in Berlin. From there the couple was deported to Auschwitz on the 30th Osttransport (deportation to the East) on February 26, 1943 and murdered. In memory of Alice and Lesser Schoeps, Stolpersteine were laid in front of their last freely chosen address in Berlin.
Martin Moshe Fürstenberg remained loyal to his birthplace of Lauenburg/Pomerania, where he had been born in 1886. His wife Edith (1897 in Lauenburg - 1942 in Auschwitz), née Scheidemann, was deported to Auschwitz on an East German transport via Berlin at the beginning of July 1942 and murdered.
The cousin of the Fürstenberg siblings, Hildegard Abraham (1888 in Neustadt/ West Prussia - 1953 in Buenos Aires/ Argentina), married to the chemist Felix Abraham (1882 - 1931 in Hamburg) initially lived in Berlin, where her daughters were born. From the 1920s, the family moved to Hamburg. Felix Abraham died in 1931, he was buried in the Jewish Cemetery Ilandkoppel. A few years later, the family (sons-in-law and granddaughters), which had grown through marriage, decided to emigrate to Argentina.
Paula Feibel was married to Samuel Wollenberg. They lived in Mewe/ West Prussia (today Gniew/ Poland). The oldest daughter Bianca (1890 - 1976 in London/ England) married Max Gabriel Berlowitz (1879 in East Prussia - 1944 in Auschwitz) and lived in Berlin. From there the couple was deported to Theresienstadt Ghetto on March 17, 1943. The rulers deported Max Gabriel Berlowitz to Auschwitz on October 23, 1944; he did not survive. Bianca Berlowitz, on the other hand, remained in Theresienstadt and was liberated by the Allies. After 1945 she emigrated to her children in England. In memory of the Berlowitz couple, Stolpersteine were laid in front of their last freely chosen address in Berlin.
After Georg Feibel died in 1937, his widow Frances Auguste Feibel emigrated to the USA in the summer of 1939 together with their two children Edgar (1922) and Lieselotte (1919). Georg Feibel found his final resting place at the Jewish Cemetery Ilandkoppel.
Jenny and Ruben Hartwig Wolff followed their youngest son Hartwig Wolff to the safety of South Africa in April 1939, where he had fled from Berlin. Their daughter Marga emigrated to Australia with her husband Alfred Max Cossen (1898- 1980).
In memory of Gertrud Feibel, grandcousin Ruth Charlotte Papernik, née Abraham, deposited a memorial leaf in Yad Vashem.
Translation Beate Meyer
Stand: February 2023
© Sonja Zoder
Quellen: 1; 2; 4; 5; 8; StaH 314-15 (OFP) R1940/0743, FVg 4162; StaH 332-5/14207-198/1934, 332-5/14684-407/1936 Standesamt (Heiraten); StaH 332-5//981-509/1931 Standesamt (Sterbefall); StaH 351-11 (AfW) 2745, 4760; Stadtarchiv Kiel -Geburtenbuch-, SNG 1.9, Geburtenregister 1902-1904, Nr. 1085 StA I am 20.12.2020; URL: https://www.holocaust.cz/de/opferdatenbank/opfer/135358-k-the-wolffova/, https://www.mappingthelives.org/bio/9a5cb304-8115-4ec3-8b13-2720ed540d40 jeweils am 20.12.2020; https://de.findagrave.com/memorial/213099937/k%C3%A4the-wolffov%C3%A1 am 6.1.2021; https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raasiku am 6.12.2021; https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C5%9Swiecie, https://collections.arolsen-archives.org/archive/, https://jfhh.org/suche.php, https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Landkreis_Lauenburg_i._Pom.,https://jüdische-gemeinden.de/index.php/gemeinden/k-l/1164-lauenburg-hinterpommern jeweils am 9.12.2021; https://hoheluftchaussee9193.wordpress.com/2021/09/20/uber-gertrud-und-arnold-feibel/ am 20.12.2021; https://yvng.yadvashem.org/index, https://www.holocaust.cz/de/opferdatenbank/opfer/5893-max-berlowitz/; https://www.pamatnik-terezin.cz/prisoner/te-wolffova-marion, https://www.pamatnik-terezin.cz/prisoner/te-wolff-ralf, https://www.pamatnik-terezin.cz/prisoner/te-wolffova-kathe jeweils am 3.1.2022; https://www.stolpersteine-berlin.de/biografie/7758 am 22.1.2022; Dank an Christina Igla für die Informationen zu Raasiku in Estland. Dank gebührt ebenso Holger Artus, der umfassend zu der Arisierung des Wohnhauses Hoheluftchaussee 91/ 93 recherchierte.
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