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Ingeborg Paula Schulz (née Rosenblum) * 1912

Deichstraße 23/vor dem Lokal "Deichgraf" (Hamburg-Mitte, Hamburg-Altstadt)

JG. 1912

Ingeborg Paula Schulz, née Rosenblum, born 19 July 1912 in Oldenburg in Holstein, deported 8 Nov. 1941 to Minsk

Deichstraße 23

Ingeborg Schulz was born in Oldenburg on 19 July 1912 as the eldest child of the Jewish couple Siegfried Rosenblum and Minna, née Horwitz. Her parents had wed in Hamburg on 16 Oct. 1911 even though neither parent lived in Hamburg.

Her mother Minna was born on 2 Nov. 1889 in Ennigloh, a neighborhood of Bünde in North Rhine-Westphalia, and at the time of her wedding she lived with her father Gustav Horwitz, a cattle merchant, at Bahnhofstraße 11 in Winsen an der Luhe, in the district of Harburg. Minna’s mother Pauline, née Goldstein, had died the previous year. Ingeborg’s father Siegfried Rosenblum lived in Oldenburg where he was born on 28 Oct. 1886, the son of Isaak Rosenblum and Pauline, née Horwitz. In Oldenburg he ran a "store for manufactured goods of all types” which he had taken over in 1908 after his father’s death and expanded during the ensuing years.

After Ingeborg’s birth, nine more children followed between 1915 and 1924. Ingeborg grew up in well-off circumstances in a 13-room villa that her father, a successful businessman, had built at Hoheluftstraße 22 in Oldenburg. Ingeborg’s mother passed away, however, in the mid 1920s. At that difficult time, their mourning was joined by financial difficulties caused by inflation. Siegfried Rosenblum is alleged, in his distress, to have staged a break-in which he reported to his insurer. He was sentenced to time in prison for fraud.

While he was in prison, his villa was sold, evidently at the instigation of his creditors. The Reich Tax Office of Oldenburg purchased the property. Ingeborg and her younger siblings became homeless. Their former maid moved with them to Hamburg, aided by support from a family friend. Siegfried Rosenblum followed them after his release from prison. In Hamburg he first had to live off of welfare until he found a job as a welfare official. The Hamburg address book first lists Siegfried Rosenblum in Hamburg in 1927, when he lived with his children at Wandsbecker Chaussee 33 in the neighborhood Eilbeck.

In Hamburg his children attended elementary school at Angerstraße 33 in Hamburg-Hohenfelde. Being the oldest, Ingeborg ran the household and looked after her youngest siblings. She was trained as a typist and then went her own way. She moved to General-Litzmann-Straße 9a (today Stresemannstraße) in old town Altona.

On 11 Apr. 1934 she married the non-Jewish pastry chef Johannes Herbert Schulz. Johannes Schulz was born in Dresden on 17 Mar. 1910. He trained as a pastry chef in Lübeck before moving to Altona in Sept. 1933 where he lived at Juliusstraße 16 in today’s Schanzenviertel. He passed his master examination in the summer of 1935. In Sept. of that year, the Nuremberg Laws were passed, prohibiting future marriage between Jewish and non-Jewish partners.

Ingeborg and Johannes lived at Schulterblatt 84 and worked at Schuback Confectionary on Steindamm. Ingeborg worked there as a waitress. On 31 May 1938 they moved to Barmbek, to Hellbrookstraße 49, to take over the pastry shop of Willy Schnoor.

Shortly after the shop’s opening, Ingeborg’s father Siegfried Rosenblum was arrested in June 1938 and taken to Sachsenhausen concentration camp. Siegfried Rosenblum was among Hamburg’s Jews taken into "protective custody” within the framework of the "June Operation” due to a previous conviction, even if it had been for petty crime committed many years earlier.

Thus, Ingeborg once again cared for her underage siblings who had been living with their father at Dillstraße 3 since 1935. Her brothers Gerhard (born 27 Apr. 1923) and Felix (born 21 Oct. 1924) were taken to safety in England on a Kindertransport of the Jewish community on 14 Dec. 1938. Her brother Rolf (born 21 Aug. 1920), who prepared for immigration to Palestine by training as a gardener, later fled in Mar. 1939 to Romania via Berlin, Poland and Czechoslovakia. From Romania he managed to reach Lebanon. Her oldest brother Paul Günther (born 24 Apr. 1919) was drafted into "Jewish work service” at the company Schmidt Underground and Road Construction in Harsefeld and was forced to live at the work camp in Wohlerst (today Stade).

Johannes Schulz sent his father-in-law money and food packages in Sachsenhausen and paid his "travel fees” when Siegfried Rosenblum was to be released in Oct. 1938. Johannes Schulz suspected after the war that his aid was reported to the head of the confectioners’ guild since that director excluded him from future meetings of the guild and arranged that Ingeborg was no longer allowed to enter the pastry shop. In Feb. 1939, Ingeborg was forced to take on the additional name "Sara” and to register it by a certain deadline at the civil registry office. On 15 Apr. 1939, Johannes Schulz was forced to give up the pastry shop because his business was boycotted for being "interrelated with Jews”.

The couple was forced to sell a large part of their household, like their kitchen equipment, in order to get by. Johannes Schulz then moved down town as a lodger at Colonnaden 82 and found work as a pastry chef, cook and patissier in various cafes and pastry shops until he was drafted into the military as a soldier early in 1940. Ingeborg lived as a lodger at Schulterblatt 78. The couple was divorced by the Hamburg State Court on 24 Jan. 1941. The divorce meant that Ingeborg lost the protection of her "privileged mixed-marriage” which might later have prevented her from being deported.

After the war, Johannes Schulz claimed, within the framework of redress of wrongs proceedings, that he only agreed to the divorce so as not to hinder his wife’s chances of fleeing, an opportunity which a "gentleman” whom she had met at the restaurant Heinze at Millerntor had offered her. Yet the vague offer of help obviously came too late. At that time, Jewish men and women could no longer leave Germany legally.

On 25 Oct. 1941 two of Ingeborg’s sisters were deported to the Lodz Ghetto Litzmannstadt, Hildegard Rosenblum (born 27 Dec. 1917), who had worked as a domestic servant at Innocentiastraße 21, and Ursula Neumann (see her entry), née Rosenblum (born 8 Jan. 1922). The latter applied voluntarily for "evacuation” with her husband Alfred Neumann (born 3 Jan. 1920) and their children Judis (born 21 May 1940) and Uri (born14 June 1941) so as not to be separated from Alfred’s mother Fanny Neumann (see her entry) who was on the replacement list for that transport along with her daughter Mirjam and grandchild Bela.

Ingeborg Schulz received her deportation orders at Deichstraße 23. She had moved in with an acquaintance, the barkeeper Frieda Hillers (later named Grimpe). One final letter of farewell reached Johannes Schulz: "My dearest little Ghandi! I just received notice that I am being deported, I leave tomorrow. These will probably be the last lines that you will receive from me. I pray for you always that you return from war unhurt. My dearest little Ghandi, I will never forget you. I love you, your never forgotten Ingeborg.”

On 8 Nov. 1941 Ingeborg was deported to Minsk, noted as having the occupation "laborer”, from Hannoverschen Train Station, the site where today Lohseplatz is located. Among the 960 Jewish men and women who left Hamburg on that transport was her father Siegfried Rosenblum, the eldest of her brothers Paul Günther and her sister Margot (born 27 Dec. 1917). Her last, freely chosen residence was at Marcusstraße 61 (today Markusstraße) before she was forced to move to the "Jewish house” in Altona at Breite Straße 54.

Ingeborg’s sister Charlotte Spitzkopf, née Rosenblum (born 4 May 1915), her husband Kurt Spitzkopf (born 11 Dec. 1914), with her nephew Heinz Ruben (born 17 Jan. 1934) received their deportation orders for 8 Nov. 1941 to Minsk at Vereinsstraße 7 in Eimsbüttel. Her brother-in-law Rudi Taeger (born 26 May 1915) received his orders for 8 Nov. 1941 at Osterstraße 111. Her sister Gertrud Taeger, née Rosenblum (born 26 Sept. 1916) was deported with her two-and-a-half-year-old son John Dan (born 20 Jan. 1939) ten days later on the second transport to Minsk Ghetto. Kurt Spitzkopf was separated from his family at Minsk Ghetto. He died of typhoid on 13 Apr. 1945 at Bergen-Belsen concentration camp. The dates of death for the other family members are not known.

Stumbling Stones have been placed for Gertrud, Rudi and John Dan Taeger at Osterstraße 111 (see Stolpersteine in Hamburg-Eimsbüttel and Hamburg-Hoheluft-West).

Soon Stumbling Stones will be laid on Markusstraße in memory of Siegfried Rosenblum, Paul Günther and Margot, as well as Ursula and Alfred Neumann and their children Judis and Uri.

In 2010 seven Stumbling Stones were placed in memory of the Rosenblum Family at Hohenluftstraße 22 in Oldenburg.

Translator: Suzanne von Engelhardt
Kindly supported by the Hermann Reemtsma Stiftung, Hamburg.

Stand: April 2020
© Susanne Rosendahl

Quellen: 1; 5; StaH 351-11 AfW 35824 (Schulz-Beiss, Johannes Herbert); StaH 351-11 AfW 45996 (Rosenblum, Gerhard); StaH 351-11 AfW 9179 (Rosenblum, Siegfried); StaH 351-11 AfW 43841 (Rosenblum, Rolf); StaH 351-11 AfW 46875 (Rose, früher Rosenblum, Felix); StaH 351-14 Arbeits- und Sozialfürsorge 1744 (Siegfried Rosenblum); StaH 332-15 Standesämter 8676 u 321/1911; StaH 332-15 Standesämter 14368 u 384/1934; StaH 522-1 Jüdische Gemeinde Nr. 992 e 2 Band 1; StaH 522-1 Jüdische Gemeinde Nr. 992 e 2 Band 2; StaH 522-1 Jüdische Gemeinde Nr. 992 e 2 Band 3; Lohmeyer: Stolpersteine, S. 486; (Zugriff 13.12.2012); (Adressbuch Winsen, Niedersachsen 1912, Zugriff 5.10.2017).
Zur Nummerierung häufig genutzter Quellen siehe Link "Recherche und Quellen".

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